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1. Public Health should address principally the fundamental causes of disease and requirements for health, aiming to prevent adverse health outcomes. This Principle addresses not only the prevention of disease and promotion of health through addressing the requirements necessary to attain or maintain health but it addresses health on the most basic level. Yet the principle acknowledges that public health will also concern itself with some immediate causes and some curative roles. For example, the treatment of curable infections is important to the prevention of transmission of infection to others.

The term “public health” is used here and elsewhere in the Code to represent the entire field of public health, including but not limited to government institutions and schools of public health. This first statement in the twelve principles of the ethical practice of public health: Recognizes the ethical value the public health community gives to prevention. Considers the full spectrum of the determinants of health. Identifies the range of options for interventions that correspond to the full spectrum of determinants of health Ethical principles of the practice of public health.

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1. Humans have a right to the resources necessary for health 2. Humans are inherently social and interdependent- meaning humans look to each other for support and companionship in the relationships they lead. E. g family, friendships and communities. By doing this they rely upon each other for safety and survival, and this is possible in more positive relationships. 3. The effectiveness of institutions depends heavily on the public’s trust- truth telling, transparency, accountability, reliability and reciprocity, listening to as well and speaking with the community.

4. Collaboration is a key element to public health- between the various public health infrastructures in terms of the agencies, working together of these agencies in order attains proper efficiency and problem solving capabilities. 5. People and their physical environment are interdependent- People depend on the resources of their natural and constructed environments for life itself, therefore a damaged or unbalance environment and poorly constructed environment or one in poor condition will have adverse effects on the health of people.

Also we know this term goes both ways meaning people play an important role in maintaining their environment as well. 6. Each person in a community should have an opportunity to contribute to public discourse. 7. Identifying and promoting the fundamental requirements of health in a community are a primary concern to public health- most health programs are curative in nature but we must never lose sight of the underlying causes and prevention. 8. Knowledge is important and powerful- improvement of health care and understanding health through research and accumulation of knowledge.

9. Science is the basis for much of our public health knowledge- scientific methods, objectivity, using a full range of scientific tools and methods of evaluation of policies and of programs to protect and promote health. 10. People are responsible to act on the basis on what they know- Public health should seek to transfer available knowledge to the public so they may make informed decisions about their health. 11. Action is not based on information alone. These ethical principles hold a major basis toward the prevention of health issues in a community.

The community should be aware and fully knowledgeable about their ethical right and privileges. The determinants of health depend largely on the circumstances and environment of people and the community. It does not mean whether someone is health or not or the absence of disease or presence of it. The determinants of health include: the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and the person’s individual characteristics and behaviours. The manner in which people live their lives has a major influence over the health they may possess whether they know this or not.

According to the WHO the following are some factors which are determinants of health. Income and social status – higher income and social status are linked to better health. The greater the gap between the richest and poorest people, the greater the differences in health. Education – low education levels are linked with poor health, more stress and lower self-confidence. Physical environment – safe water and clean air, healthy workplaces, safe houses, communities and roads all contribute to good health.

Employment and working conditions – people in employment are healthier, particularly those who have more control over their working conditions Social support networks – greater support from families, friends and communities is linked to better health. Culture – customs and traditions, and the beliefs of the family and community all affect health. Genetics – inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan, healthiness and the likelihood of developing certain illnesses.

Personal behavior and coping skills – balanced eating, keeping active, smoking, drinking, and how we deal with life’s stresses and challenges all affect health. Health services – access and use of services that prevent and treat disease influences health Gender – Men and women suffer from different types of diseases at different ages. Interventions of health These public health interventions all correspond to addressing the determinants of health which people may lack.

In past times it was the rich who benefitted from health care since it was only they who could afford it. For example the Roman’s used to assign physicians to treat the poor, but in these modern times, primary, secondary and tertiary health care are made widely and most of the time freely available, thereby bridging the gap which wealth and social status once played. Although wealth does still play a part in the quality of health care available now-a- days. Immunizations and vaccinations are now a requirement for certain institutions and are readily and easily available.

Low levels of education was once linked to decreased health and self confidence and increased stress levels but education is now more readily available than it ever was before. Our physical environment plays a major role in our levels of health in terms of infrastructure and available resources, but it is our exploitation of these resources and our poor upkeep which has lead to the deterioration of the physical environment as seen in pollution on land, sea and air and the conditions under which people work as well as the threat our own infrastructure possess to us during natural disasters.

Bring awareness to people on how important our environment is to health and the study and development of newer environmentally friendly technology has helped in taking a pinch of the iceberg which these physical factors play in public health. The social support system which is one of the determinants of health of recent time is being broken down in terms of the support of the extended family, but numerous organizations are present which provide this social support, along with most of the customs and traditions still present in Trinidad.

Genetics is one thing which cannot be changed put the risk factors which lead up to one’s susceptibility to an illness can be. This can be done through the education of individuals on what to look for by addressing what are these risk factors. There are programs which provide info on nutrition, general health care and control of communicable and chronic diseases. Men and Women share many differences resulting in differences in disease but not only this but in how they acquire treatment as well.

Men tend to avoid going to the health facilities to address health issues, while women frequent these centers. The result most men gain treatment at the later stages of their illness. But through public broadcasting and information being supplied, the level of awareness is being raised about the illnesses which people are more susceptible to as they age and signs to look for. For e. g. Breast cancer and prostate cancer awareness.

But most importantly the most important intervention has to be dealing with the self and providing or acquiring all the proper means and interventions necessary to deal with one’s health. Cleanliness and Sanitation plays an important role as well, since it is by an unclean environment that diseases thrive, are spread and acquired. But although the entire world cannot be made sanitary it all starts with the self and begins at home and on extension in your community.


If all these determinants of health are met, along with proper laboratory facilities necessary for disease diagnosis and treatment research are acquired, and then a better standard of living can be acquired as well as a better chance to attain health. REFERENCES Health Impact Assessment (HIA). (n. d. ). WHO. Retrieved June 30, 2013, from http://www. who. int/hia/evidence/doh/en/index. html Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health (2002) | CSEP : Codes Repository. (n. d. ). Welcome | ethics. iit. edu. Retrieved June 30, 2013, from http://ethics. iit. edu/ecodes/node/4734

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