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Public health is defined as the Science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through organized community efforts. These include sanitation, control of contagious infections, hygiene education, early diagnosis and preventive treatment, and adequate living standards. It requires understanding not only of epidemiology, nutrition, and antiseptic practices but also of social science. Historical public health measures included quarantine of leprosy victims in the Middle Ages and efforts to improve sanitation following the 14th-century plague epidemics.

Population increases in Europe brought with them increased awareness of infant deaths and a proliferation of hospitals. Britain’s Public Health Act of 1848 established a special public health ministry. In the U. S. , public health is studied and coordinated on a national level by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; internationally, the World Health Organization plays an equivalent role. An example of the jurisdictions is “public health the law” which clearly indicates that their mission statement is based on the IOM definition.The IOM’s definition can be appreciated by examining its constituent parts. The emphasis on cooperative and mutually shared obligation (“we, as a society”) reinforces that collective entities (e.

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g. , governments and communities) take responsibility for healthy populations. Individuals can do a great deal to safeguard their health, particularly if they have the economic means to do so.They can purchase housing, clothing, food, and medical care. Each person can also behave in ways that promote health and safety by eating healthy foods, exercising, using safety equipment (e.g. , seatbelts and motorcycle helmets), or refraining from smoking, using illicit drugs, or drinking alcoholic beverages excessively.

Yet, there is a great deal that individuals cannot do to secure their health and, therefore, these individuals need to organize, build together, and share resources. Acting alone, people cannot achieve environmental protection, hygiene and sanitation, clean air and surface water, uncontaminated food and drinking water, safe roads and products, and control of infectious disease.Each of these collective goods and many more, are achievable only by organized and sustained community activities (Gostin 2000a). The IOM definition also makes clear that even the most organized and socially conscious society cannot guarantee complete physical and mental well-being. There will always be a certain amount of injury and disease in the population that is beyond the reach of individuals or government. The role of public health, therefore, is to “assure the conditions for people to be healthy.

”These conditions include a variety of educational, economic, social, and environmental factors that are necessary for good health. Another jurisdiction website believes that law plays crucial roles in the field of public health, from defining the power and jurisdiction of health agencies, to influencing the social norms that shape individual behavior despite its importance, public health administration. Over a decade ago the institute of medicine issued report statutes. The website examines the current state of public health law.To help create the conditions in which people can be healthy, public health law must reflect and understanding of how public health agencies work to promote health, as well as the political and social context in which these agencies operate.

The site first discusses three prevailing ways in which the determinants of health are conceptualized, and the political and social problems each model tends to create for public health efforts. Vaccine Information Statements (VISs) are information sheets produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).VISs explain both the benefits and risks of a vaccine to adult vaccine recipients and the parents or legal representatives of vaccines who are children and adolescents. Federal law requires that VISs be handed out whenever certain vaccinations are given (before each dose). Information related to immunizations for people included children and adult are very similar for both sites.

Both websites contain information to help people of all ages make informed decisions about vaccinations.Describe the way each site presents information related to immunizations for children and adults. Although vaccines are very safe, they do sometimes cause reactions or side effects. Most of the time the side effects are mild such as soreness or redness where the shot was given or a low-grade fever. These reactions usually last only a day or two. In my opinion, there should have been an assessment for people to practice so they can do some critical thinking of the situation and have better understanding.

However, the websites were very informal and clear so easy to understand. No information was neglected every little piece was well detailed. Reading through the websites educated me a lot more than I was about public health mission and functions. I am definitely pleased by all the resources and information I have learned through the different websites and clearly see that they are making everything possible to help citizens in every way. References: * www. idph. state. ia.

us/downloads/core_functions. pdf * www. health. gov/phfunctions/public. htm

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