1. What are the dimensions of health identified by the World Health Organization? The dimensions of health identified by the World Health Organization is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being. 2. What is wellness? What are the dimensions of wellness? How is wellness conceptualized as a continuum? Wellness is the process of adopting patterns of behavior that can lead to improved health and heightened life satisfaction. The dimensions of wellness are physical, emotional, intellectual, spirituals interpersonal or social, and environmental.
Wellness is conceptualized as a continuum; one end of the continuum represents extreme illness and premature death, and the other represents wellness and optimal health. 3. What is the difference between the listed cause of death and the “actual cause” of death? The difference in listed caused of death and actual cause of death is that listed cause of death the conditions that killed the person such as heart attack or stroke and actual causes of death are the underlying factors of death such as obesity.
4. What is meant by the social determinants of health? By saying social determinants of health, it means the societal conditions that affect health and can potentially be altered by social and health policies and programs. 5. Explain the ecological model of health and wellness. The ecological model of health and wellness focuses on the complex interactions among individual behaviors; environmental factors; and genetic, or hereditary factors. 6. Give some examples of actions that fall into the category of community health.
One example of community health is a community may decide to create bike lanes on public streets to protect cyclists, encourage people to be more physically active, and cut down on traffic and air pollution. Another example is a community may support the creation of health clinic within its boundaries, or it may require builders to include green space or parks in their construction plans. 7. How is public health defined? What are some examples of public health issues? Public health is the study and practice of health promotion and disease prevention at the population level.
Some examples off public health issues are preventing epidemics, promoting healthy behaviors, and preventing injuries. 8. What is the difference between disease prevention and health promotion? The difference between disease prevention and health promotion is that disease prevention is public health related actions designed to ward off or protect against specific diseases, and health promotion is a public health related actions designed to maintain a current healthy state or advance to a more desirable state. 9. What are the main racial/ethnic groups that make up the American population?
The main racial/ethic groups that make up the American population are African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders. 10. What is the difference between ethnicity and race? The difference between ethnicity and race is that ethnicity is the sense of identity an individual draws from a common ancestry and or a common national, religious, tribal, language, and cultural origin, and race is the term used in the social sciences to describe ethnic groups based on physical characteristics 11.
What theories have been proposed to explain the mechanisms by which social determinants impact health? The theories that have been proposed to explain the mechanisms by which social determinants impact health is the risk exposure theory and the resource deprivation theory. 12. What are the two broad goals of Healthy People 2010? The two broad goals of Healthy People 2010 is to help individuals of all ages increase life expectancy and improve their quality of life and eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population.
13. What factors and questions are involved in making a health decision, according to the Health Belief Model? According to this model, people make decisions based on their knowledge and perceptions about a health problem and about the behavior recommended in relation to that problem. 14. Describe the stages of change in the Transtheoretical Model. The first stage of change in the Transtheoretical model is precontemplation which the individual has no motivation to change and in fact does not realize or acknowledge that there is a problem.
The second stage is contemplation which the individual acknowledges that there is a problem and is thinking about making a change. The third stage is preparation which the individual is planning for change in the immediate future. The fourth stage is action which the individual is implementing the behavior change, and the fifth stage is maintenance which the new behavior has been in place and the individual consolidates, gains, and works to prevent relapse. 15. What is termination? What is relapse?
Termination occurs when the behavior is firmly trenched as a part of a person’s lifestyle and there is zero temptation to return to the old behavior. Relapse is when a person cycles back to the contemplation or even the precontemplation stage. 16. Describe several processes of change and the stages of change at which they are most useful? Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, implementing and maintenance are the several processes of change. 17. What are the steps in a behavior change plan?
The steps in a behavior change plan is as follows: Step one is to set goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, and realistic. Step two is to develop action steps for attaining goals within a set time frame. Step three is to identify benefits associated with the behavior change. Step four is to identify positive enablers that will help you overcome barrier. Step five is to sign a behavior change contract to put your commitment in writing. Step six is to create benchmarks to recognize and reward interim goals, and step seven is to assess your accomplishment of goals and if necessary, revise the plan.
18. What are the three types of health literacy? What changes in our society have made health literacy more important? The three types of health literacy are interactive literacy, functional literacy, and critical literacy. Some changes in our society that made health literacy more important are that consumers are faced with enormous amounts of health information, and many more consumers come from diverse cultural backgrounds that include ideas about health that maybe incompatible with Western models. 19. What is the difference between correlational studies and experimental studies?
The difference between correlational studies and experimental studies is the correlational studies suggest likely associations but do not establish cause and effect relationships, and experimental studies are considered to establish cause and effect relationships. 20. What questions should you ask when evaluating a health site on the Internet? The questions you should ask when evaluating a health site on the internet are who maintains and pays for this site, how often is the site updated, does the site include a disclaimer, does the site promise miracle cures, and does the site subscribe to the principles of the health on the net foundation.
21. Why is childhood overweight and obesity a public health concern? Childhood overweight and obesity is a public health concern because being overweight at such a young age includes a greater risk for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, Type- 2 diabetes, heart disease, and the life expectancy of today’s children may be shortened by two to five years. 22. Give an example of a health-related ethical dilemma our society faces. Should a woman who uses cocaine during pregnancy be held criminally liable for the health effects of her child is an example of a health related ethical dilemma our society faces.