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During the nineteenth century the growing towns of Britain were overcrowded. People lived on top of each other and some lived in sailors because the houses which were built had small yards and small area where they placed their toilets. Those days people were unhygienic therefore the diseases were spreadable because there were not curable.

When the toilets were full the soil men would take the human waste away and heaped the human waste in a large pile near the houses, the waste would seep into the river and this caused germs to the water they drank and the disease called Cholera was identified, some believe the disease was caused by the miasma (bad smells). In 1839 Edwin Chadwick began his research on sanitation and he provided his report which included the living conditions in Britain during the nineteenth century.

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The report was actually published in 1942; it included great importance in terms of forcing change. In the sanitary report Chadwick made a link between poverty, squalor and disease. It also explained the establishment of a single local authority supported by expert medical and civil engineering advice to administer all sanitary matters. After six years that’s when the public health act was introduced. The public health act was an outcome of the sanity report for Edwin Chadwick and it was set up to achieve Chadwick goals and the association.

The public health act was the outcome of Chadwick sanitary report and the pressure applied on the parliament by the health of towns association. The legislation went away on achieving the goals of Chadwick these were to establish the central board of health, responsible for water supplies and drainage. In 1854 at Soho there was a cholera outbreak that’s when John Snow identified the link between cholera and water supply. After his investigation including plotting cases of cholera on a map of the area, Snow identified a water pump in Broad Street as the source of the disease.

The pump was removed and the cases of cholera effectively started to diminish. 20th century The Beverage report 1942 After the second year there was a strong feeling that that the British should be rewarded for their sacrifice and resolution. So the government asked William Beverage to write a report on the best ways of helping on low incomes. He published his report in 1942 and recommended that the government should find ways of fighting the five giant evil.

The five evils included diseases which explained uses of poor housing so he introduced the National Health service to get rid of the diseases and NHS would treat people with illnesses who are either in hospital or their own homes, the five evils also included the want, this was provided for the poor who were not able to feed themselves so William Beverage introduce the family allowance act{child benefit } in 1948 which was to help the children who were going to school and also some of the people who did not go to school and unemployed..

William Beverage also included ignorance on one the five giant evils (lack of education) during this time secondary education was only afforded by those who could pay or those children who had scholarships at the age of eleven, so most of the children left education because they did not have enough money to pay for it so the education act of 1944 was introduced to get rid of the situation.

Beverage also included idleness in the report it explained that this time most people did not have enough jobs, therefore there were not able to afford different this they wanted so the government nationalised some industries and set boards to help industries in high areas of unemployment. Squalor was the last evil which he introduced(poor housing) although after the nineteenth century new houses were build many people couldn’t afford to buy new houses so the housing act was introduce to help the people who couldn’t afford to buy those houses.

The beverage report aimed to help those people who couldn’t afford to go to school, which couldn’t find any employment, pensions for old people and free treatments to those who have diseases and also was designed to counter the five giants. Founding of the National Health Service During the nineteenth century there were health problems and people could not get rid of it because they could not afford to pay the charges needed for the treatments and people would die and therefore Aneurin Bevan brought the health service into being.

The National Health Service was established in 1948, it was created out the ideal that good health care should be available to all regardless to wealth. The NHS was based on the three core principles that were that it will meet the individual needs, it will be free at the point of delivery and that it will be based on clinical need not ability to pay. The NHS provides access to special needs services, and also provides free visits to hospitals, GP and opticians.

The NHS also covers everything from the antenatal screening and routine treatments for coughs and colds to open heart surgery accident and emergency treatment and end of life care. The NHS also provides services like dental services, eye care services and sexual health services. Our Healthier Nation (1999 Our healthier nation was established in 1999 and the aim of it was to tackle poor health. That is to improve the public health. However our healthier nation had some targets that by 2010 they should have reduced cancer by at least a fifth, and to reduce the death rate of diseases like coronary heart disease, mental illness.

Our health nation 1999 wanted also to reduce the rate of people who smoke b providing information that smoking reduces your life expectancy. Our healthier nation was also to tackle sexual health, drugs, alcohol, food safety and communicable diseases. Our healthier nation was also to provide information to the NHS so they may help the public to achieve health 21st century Health protection agency The health protection agency was published in 2003 and its aim is to provide an integrated approach to protect public health through the provision of support and advice from the NHS.

The health protection agency also protects the public from threats to their health from infectious diseases and environmental hazards. The health protection agency protect public by giving them information and advice also giving the information to the health professional such as nurses, doctors and also to the local and national government. The health protection gives information and advice to the public such as how to remain healthy and avoid health hazards. It also helps in that the nation is ready for future threats to health that could happen.

The agency also advices and gives information to those organisations who play a role in protecting the health of the public. The agency identifies any emergencies caused by infectious diseases, hazardous chemicals and poisons. This agency was also to bring together the expertise of health and scientific professional working in public health, communicable diseases and emergency planning. National institute for health and clinical excellence It was set up in 1999 and it was aimed to reduce variation in the availability and quality of the NHS treatments and care.

The NICE also produces public health guidance recommending the best ways to encourage healthy living promote well being and prevent diseases. The NICE public health guidance is meant for local authorities, NHS and all those who are involved in improving people s health in the public, private community and voluntary sectors. Every NICE guidance and quality standard s developed by the independent committee of experts including clinicians, patients, and health economists. NICE help those working in the NHS, local authorities to have high quality of health care Making healthier choices easier 2004

The white paper choosing health, making healthier nation choices easier was published in 2004 and it explained some good points to help people make choices of their health. These would be based against the public views to what they need. For making health easier people would be the one to make decisions about choices that affect their health. The aim of the organization was to reduce the number of people who smokes, improving diet and nutrition,, improve sexual health and mental health of the public.

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