Psychologists and other qualified mental health professionals use psychological tests to measure specific psychological constructs in individuals. This lesson will explore the different types of psychological tests and provide several examples.
What Is a Psychological Test?
Suppose that you are a psychologist. A new client walks into your office reporting trouble concentrating, fatigue, feelings of guilt, loss of interest in hobbies and loss of appetite. You automatically think that your client may be describing symptoms of depression.
However, you note that there are several other disorders that also have similar symptoms. For example, your client could be describing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), insomnia or a list of other psychological disorders. There are also some physical conditions, such as diabetes or congestive heart failure, which could result in the mental symptoms that your client is reporting.
So, how do you determine which diagnosis, if any, you give your client? One tool that can help you is a psychological test or psychological assessments. These are instruments used to measure how much of a specific psychological construct an individual has. Psychological tests are used to assess many areas, including:
- Traits such as introversion and extroversion
- Certain conditions such as depression and anxiety
- Intelligence, aptitude and achievement such as verbal intelligence and reading achievement
- Attitudes and feelings such as how individuals feel about the treatment that they received from their therapists
- Interests such as the careers and activities that a person is interested in
- Specific abilities, knowledge or skills such as cognitive ability, memory and problem-solving skills
It is important to note that not everyone can administer a psychological test.
Each test has its own requirements that a qualified professional must meet in order for a person to purchase and administer the test to someone else.Psychological tests provide a way to formally and accurately measure different factors that can contribute to people’s problems. Before a psychological test is administered, the individual being tested is usually interviewed. In addition, it is common for more than one psychological test to be administered in certain settings.Let’s look at an example involving a new client. You might decide that the best way to narrow down your client’s diagnosis is to administer the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSSI) and an insomnia questionnaire.
You may be able to rule out a diagnosis or two based on the test results. These assessments may be given to your client in one visit, since they all take less than 20 minutes on average to complete.
Types and Examples of Psychological Tests
Intelligence tests are used to measure intelligence, or your ability to understand your environment, interact with it and learn from it. Intelligence tests include:
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB)
Personality tests are used to measure personality style and traits.
Personality tests are commonly used in research or to assist with clinical diagnoses. Examples of personality tests include:
- Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
- Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
- Rorschach, also known as the ‘inkblot test’
Attitude tests, such as the Likert Scale or the Thurstone Scale, are used to measure how an individual feels about a particular event, place, person or object.Achievement tests are used to measure how well you understand a particular topic (i.e., mathematics achievement tests). Aptitude tests are used to measure your abilities in a specific area (i.
e. clerical skills).Achievement tests include:
- Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)
- Peabody Individual Achievement Test ( PIAT)
Aptitude tests include:
- Bloomberg Aptitude Test (BAT)
- Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)
Neuropsychological tests are used to detect impairments in your cognitive functioning that are thought to be a result of brain damage. For example, if you were to have a stroke, you might have a neuropsychological test to see if there is any resulting cognitive damage (i.e.
, decreased ability to think due to damage in a brain pathway). One example of a neuropsychological test is the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. Other examples include:
- Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)
- Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)
Vocational tests, also referred to as career tests or occupational tests, are used to measure your interests, values, strengths and weaknesses.
This information is then used to determine which careers or occupational settings you are most suitable for. Career psychologists and counselors most commonly use vocational assessments to help their clients make decisions about their future educational goals and career choices. Examples of vocational tests include:
- Jackson Vocational Interest Survey (JVIS)
- Strong Interest Inventory (SII)
Direct observation tests are measures in which test takers are observed as they complete specific activities. It is common for this type of test to be administered to families in their homes, in a clinical setting such as a laboratory or in a classroom with children. They include:
- Parent-Child Interaction Assessment-II (PCIA-II)
- MacArthur Story Stem Battery (MSSB)
- Dyadic Parent-child Interaction Coding System-II (DPICS II)
There are also specific clinical tests that measure specific clinical constructs, such as anxiety or PTSD. Some examples of specific clinical tests include:
- Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
- Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
- Hopelessness Scale for Children (HSC)
Psychological tests are instruments used to measure specific constructs. Psychologists use these tests to help them to provide an accurate diagnosis for a client.
Career counselors, educators, counselors and other mental health professionals also use them. There are nine types of psychological tests:
- Intelligence tests
- Personality tests
- Attitude tests
- Achievement tests
- Aptitude tests
- Neuropsychological tests
- Vocational tests
- Direct observation tests
- Specific clinical tests
These tests cannot be administered by just anyone. There are certain requirements that have to be met in order for a trained professional to purchase and administer a psychological test.
Learning about the various aspects of psychological tests could enable you to:
- Determine what a psychological test is and what it can be used for
- Enumerate the nine types of psychological tests and cite examples of each