Protection of materials from corrosion is a major deal now a day. Materials like big vessels, water pipes, coolant pipes in nuclear reactors, submerged materials in sea environment face a lot of problems due to corrosion. Antifouling coatings are used to protect materials from corrosion. Most of these paints contain trace metals as a component.
When metals in water, metal ions leaching are unavoidable. This would finally lead to heavy metal toxicity to aquatic animals. These anti fouling properties are majorly found in superhydrophobic coatings. The superhydrophobicity is a property that governs the extreme water repellency, self cleaning and non-wettability of a solid surface. These super-hydrophobic surfaces exhibits water contact angle (?150°) have received considerable attention due to their fabulous properties. On such surfaces water or any other liquid forms nearly spherical droplets and not continuous films because of the high roughness and low energy of the fine surface structure traps a thin layer of air which reduces the contact between the water droplet and the solid surfaces .
Examples of such surfaces are found extensively in the natural world as well. For example, the formation of glistening beads of water on the leaves of many plants, most notably on the lotus leaves has been a long observed phenomenon. In fact this property has been given a special name as Lotus Effect. The ability of some aquatic creatures like ducks to constantly keep their feathers clean, the survival of some insects like the Namibian desert beetle in the arid desert regions can all be attributed to the superhydrophobic characteristics of the surfaces concerned. It is only recently the that these naturally occurring surfaces have been examined in detail ( pioneering work in this field was done by Professor Wilhelm Barthlott of the University of Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany in 1997) and their morphological and chemical natures have been analyzed. Earlier the works of Cassie, Baxter and Wenzel had provided insights into the relation of wettability by liquids and surface roughness of solids. This has provided us with some insight into the origin of this remarkable behaviour and the artificial synthesis of such materials.
In fact nature itself provides us withsome of the necessary templates that are be