Poverty is not only measured by income, there are manyindicators such as life expectancy, fertility, undernourishment, Populationgrowth, and contraception, which have all been measured in countries such asBangladesh, china, Tunisia, Sweden, USA, Congo, Iran, Japan, Cameroon, andCuba. The aim of this essay is to reach an understanding of poverty across theworld by comparing 10 countries and examining each of the indicators. Thisreport will allow the reader to gain a wider understanding of what poverty trulyconsists of and gives an insight of how reliable and accurate Indicators are tointerpret poverty accurately. poverty it is vital to study indicators such as populationgrowth, contraception, undernourishment, fertility and life expectancy.
It isessential to decipher the whether indicators are reliable enough to measuredevelopment and poverty within a county. Examining indicators that explain thepoverty and development rates of countries like USA, Sweden, Tunisia, China,Japan, Bangladesh, Congo, Cameroon, Iran and Cuba will give a broad conceptionof poverty across the globe. Aims and Objectives: • Tocompare our intuitive ranking and final ranking. • Tounderstand whether GDP is a good indicator.• State anyanomalies that have been discovered.• Recognizewhat leads to poverty.• Identifyhow reliable the indicators are in showing the level of poverty and developmentacross the globe.
Studies have found “that the poor have less access toinformation or fewer of the physical and human capital assets needed to takeadvantage of the windows of opportunity afforded by such changes” (Birdsall,Kelley and Sinding, 2001). To further explore this issue of poverty continent which would result in a narrow understanding of what povertyis. The method used to reach our finding was that we selectedthe countries and indicators that we wanted to analyse, which were selectedfrom the documents and date provided by the module leader. After this stage wehad a go at the initiative ranking then worked out the average ranking andfinally the final ranking. After this process we had the chance to compare ourinitial judgements with the final ranking. This data was added to a table whichwas also provided by the module leader. Firstly life expectancy in countries like Japan is thehighest with a value of 82.3years, compared to the lowest life expectancy rateof 45.
8years in Congo (Data provided by the module leader). This data showsthat the more developed a country is the more likely it is to have a higherlife expectancy, as Congo is nowhere near as developed as Japan has nearlydouble the life expectancy of Congo. Life expectancy can be affected by poorsanitation and disease. Congo has some of the most serious health problems manyof which are incurable, the top causes of death are HIV/AIDS, stroke, CoronaryHeart Disease, Influenza and Pneumonia, Diarrhoeal diseases(www.worldlifeexpectancy.com). One of many reasons why Congo has a low lifeexpectancy is due to the poor sanitation and lack of clean water, as less thana quarter of the population of Congo has access to these facilities(www.
our-africa.org). As well as this”an estimated 70 per cent of Congolese have little or no access to health care”(www.
usaid.gov). Comparing this to Japan where boys and girls are expected tolive up to the age of 73 without experiencing any major life threateningillness or disability (www.today.
com). Also a study found that “a three-memberJapanese family used 280.7 litres a day” (http://factsanddetails.
com). Thesefindings show the level of poverty across the world and highlights how deprivedsome countries such as Congo over others such as Japan. Therefore if sanitationis improved and diseases are prevented, life expectancy would improve greatlyin countries similar to Congo. The life expectancy indicator reveals the levelof poverty and underdevelopment in countries across the globe as the poorcountries hit by poverty are not immune from diseases and do not have goodsanitation. Life expectancy further affects fertility rates hence 10countries are analysed in this report. Japan has the lowest fertility ratewhich was the value of 1.
3 and in comparison Congo has the highest with thevalue of 6.7 (Data provided by the module leader). Fertility in japan has beendeclining since 1947, due to the educational opportunities available and theincreasing change in gender roles. This has led to a decline in marriage andwomen wanting to pursue a career for better chances of success and employmentrather than traditionally settling and having a family (www.
un.org). InContrast statistics have shown 7.
3 million populations of children in Congo ofwhich 3.8million girls do not attend school (www.unicef.org).
Due to the lackof funds, opportunity and money available to go to school, girls aretraditional unable to get educated. This leads to the increasing rate early agepregnancy and miscarriages. Arguably this is due to the amount poverty withinthe country, as people in deprived countries rely on their children to provideand help the family survive. Fertility rate can be seen as a dependableindicator as it provides an understanding the level of poverty and its effecton families and specifically women who bare children.Contraception is directly connected with fertilityconsequently why Contraception is a reliable indicator, as it helps define thelevels of development and poverty. China has the highest use of contraceptioncompared to Cameroon which has the lowest use of contraception (Data providedby module leader).
There are many reasons why a country like China has a highlevel of contraception, one of the reasons being the two child policy, whichwas set up because of the overpopulation in china. Figures have recorded thatchina has the highest population than other countries (www.cnbc.com). Datashows “In Cameroon, 63% of women who want to avoid pregnancy do not use amodern method of contraception” (www.
guttmacher.org). This is due to the lackof availability of products such as contraception pills as people are unable toafford such treatments. This indicates that countries like Cameroon who areless developed than countries like China are unable to gain access tocontraception and therefore the richer countries have more access tocontraception.
The Lower the contraception rates the higher the populationgrowth rate as evident in developing countries like Congo, Iran, Bangladesh and Cameroon and the highest useof contraception is in countries like Sweden, Japan, USA and China. (Dataprovided by module leader). Many causes of population growth in developingcountries are the lack of education on contraception and limited familyplanning services. Also families rely on children for labour and to bringincome home (http://www.bbc.co.
uk). This can also affect the economic state ofa country as rapid population growth makes it harder to provide food andshelter for all the people within the country (www.un.
org). Population growthis a reliable indicator which helps define the level of poverty and developmentacross the globe. Undernourishment can be the result of high populationgrowth. It is a significant indicator of poverty and underdevelopment as someof the poorest 3rd world countries such as Cuba, Bangladesh, Cameroon and Congoare momentously affected by undernourishment.
This paralleled with the richerfirst world countries such as USA, Sweden and Japan that have far less levelsof undernourishment. (Data provided by the module leader). Inadequate food andwater supplies increases the problem of undernourishment and malnutrition.Undernourishment and malnutrition in turn further affects the social andeconomic state of the country. The population is unable to reach their fullest potentialfor example children will not be able to succeed in school affecting theirchances of getting a stable job, as well as this undernourished adults will beunable to work and provide for their families (http://www.
fao.org). It is also argued thatundernourishment is present today not because of shortages rather because ofinequality. As statistics show that there is enough food to feed 7billionpeople alive today (www.
theguardian.com) .This clarifies that richer countries arefar more established and are able to supply more food to the population thanthe poorer countries such as Bangladesh, Cameroon, and Congo. GDP is an accurate indicator for poverty, while comparingthe GDP of the countries, Congo’s GDP value of 714 a lot lower than Japansvalue GDP which is 31267 (Data provided by module leader).
Congo’s economy hasbeen affected by instability and violence putting the population into furtherpoverty (http://www.heritage.org).Comparing this to Japan where consumer spending and domestic activity grewsignificantly (www.theguardian.
com).GDP is reliable indicator that shows the level of poverty as it is clear thatcountries with lower GDP have higher poverty rates, whereas countries withhigher GDP have lower levels of poverty.Poverty and development can clearly be understood by theindicators mentioned in this report.
Life expectancy, Fertility,Undernourishment, Population growth rate, Contraception, and GDP helpunderstand the level of poverty therefore are reliable. The highest ratecountries where compared and analysed with the lowest rate countries forexample Japan and Congo. It is clear that countries with low life expectancyneed improvements in areas such as sanitation and diseases. Further to resolvethe issues of poverty contraception, fertility, undernourishment, populationgrowth, countries needs to provide better family planning services, equalityand education amongst the people within the country. 10 countries from all over the globe within the report arediscussed which include, USA, Sweden, Tunisia, China, Japan, Bangladesh, Congo,Cameroon, Iran and Cuba.
The countries were selected on the basis ofdifferentiation and attaining a wider understanding of what poverty is likeacross the world. This idea was preferred over choosing countries that wereonly within one region or