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Population Growth in EuropeDuring the Industrial Revolution there were many factors that caused population growth in both Europe and Britain during the Industrial Revolution between 1780 and 1850. There is also many factors in present day that cause population growth. Whether its reduced mortality, better medical facilities, faster birth rate, depletion of precious resources, are some of the causes which results in population growth. Population of Britain grew very fast during this period, from 5 million people in 1700 to about 9 million by 1801. Alot of people left the country in order to find new jobs in towns and cities. Others came from further away from areas in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. And from across big areas of Europe. (Georgian Britain, The rise of the cities in the 18th century. (2015, April 22)One of the big reason for population growth in Britain during the Industrial Revolution was agriculture, or faster food production. Advances in agriculture technology like new tools and fertilizers helped speed up productions of food to feed the big increase in population. Even with urbanization and industrialization, agriculture stayed the main income producer of jobs in Britain, both supporting and being supported by industry. The average age of people marrying for the first time dropped, so did the numbers of people never marrying, which meant more chance for more babies to be born. Also, the rates of people were dying in Britain began to fall over the time of the Industrial Revolution, and this meant there were more people alive. However, where less mortality was the common explanation for population growth, it is held to be the increase in marriage and birth rate which partly caused the explosion. Industrialization was a huge reason for population growth during the Industrial Revolution. Increase in foreign trade made a greater demand for manufactured goods. Mass production was achieved by replacing water, human, animal power with steam power and by the invention of new machines and technology. Among other inventions, the introduction of steam power was a big source of motivation for the Industrial Revolution. Improvements to the steam engine and the creation of the rotative engine, were very helpful for industrial production, machinery could now work alot faster, with rotary movements without using human or animal power.  Coal became the main factor in the success in the Industrial Revolution, it was used to produce the steam power on which factories counted on. Improvements in mining basically guaranteed that more coal could be extracted to power the factories and run railway trains and steamships. Britain’s cotton and metalworking industries became important to people around the world, but the manufacture of glass, soap, and things like pottery also thrived. (www.thoughtco.com)Industrialization resulted in people moving into the city searching for jobs like farmers that lost their homes and land for various reasons. Some families did rather well, but others lived in horrible living conditions. A class of industrialists, ship owners and merchants dominated, making a great profit, but at the same time the working classes had to live with minimum comforts in overcrowded environments. Some examples of the horrible living conditions were the tenements they lived in. The tenements were multistory buildings divided into apartments. These tenements did not have running water, only community pumps. There was no sewage or sanitation system, so waste and garbage were also dumped into rivers, which led to contaminated water and many people getting sick. Children were sent to work in factories, where they also had horrible conditions. (Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2007). World history: the modern era. Boston Mass.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.) Women experienced changes in their lifestyle as they took jobs in domestic service and the textile industries, leaving the agricultural workforce and spending less time in the family home. This period also saw the creation of a middle class that enjoyed the benefits of the new prosperity. (www.thoughtco.com)Most important, 19th-century Britain experienced political unrest as the industrialization and urbanization of the country created a need for social and political change. There were growing demands for social welfare, education, labor rights, political rights and equality, as well as for the abolition of the slave trade and changes in the electoral system. The slave trade was abolished in 1807. After this Reform Act, manufacturing cities such as Birmingham and Manchester could be represented in Parliament for the first time, changing the parliamentary politics.The Industrial Revolution brought fundamental changes in the British way of everyday life. Scientific changes and technological improvements contributed to the advancement of agriculture, industry, shipping and trade and to the expansion of the economy. Overall these are the reasons for the population growth in Europe. (http://www.britishmuseum.org)

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