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They are designed to produce drug effects over an extended time. SIR tablets are administered less frequently (usually once daily).

E. G. Spotting SIR, Ravel SIR Modified release tablets (MR.) Modified release tablets are a more advanced version in which release Of the active ingredient is related to time. E. G.

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Predicted MR. Parental Dosage Forms and Delivery Systems Parental dosage forms and delivery systems include inescapable (ii, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and dry powders for reconstitution), intermarry infusions, intraregional delivery systems, and implants.Recombinant proteins and peptides as well as vaccines are specialized dosage forms, usually for parental administration. Solution A solution for injection is a mixture of 2 or more components that form a single phase that is homogeneous down to the molecular level.

“Water for injection” is the most widely used solvent for parental formulations. However, a non-aqueous solvent or a mixed aqueous/non-aqueous solvent system may be necessary to stabilize drugs that are readily hydrolysis by water or to improve solubility.A range of expedients may be included in rental solutions, including antioxidants, antimicrobial agents, buffers, chelating agents, inert gases, and substances for adjusting tonality. Suspension A suspension for injection consists of insoluble solid particles dispersed in a liquid medium, with the solid particles accounting for 0. 5-?30% of the suspension.

The vehicle may be aqueous, oil, or both. Caking of incapable suspensions is minimized through the production of flocculated systems, comprising clusters of particles (floss) held together in a loose open structure.Expedients in incapable suspensions include antimicrobial preservatives, refastens, dispersing or suspending agents, and buffers. Emulsion An emulsion for injection is a heterogeneous dispersion of one immiscible liquid in another; it relies on an emulsifying agent for stability. Parental emulsions are rare because it is seldom necessary to achieve an emulsion for drug administration Dry Powder A dry powder for parental administration is reconstituted as a solution or as a suspension immediately prior to injection.

The principal advantage of this dosage form is that it overcomes the problem of instability in solution. Special Dosage Form Considerations with Recombinant Proteins and Peptides Recombinant proteins and peptides are used in some countries for increasing feed conversion efficiency and milk production in cattle (bovine growth hormone), increasing feed conversion efficiency and producing leaner carcasses in pigs (porcine growth hormone), the chemical shearing of sheep (epidermal growth factor), reducing the incidence of skeletal weaknesses leading to leg injuries in horses (equine growth hormone), and for other uses.Recombinant proteins and peptides have been formulated as solutions, hypnotized powders, implants, and misappropriates.

The chemical and physical instability of recombinant proteins and peptides is a special consideration during formulation development. Special Dosage Form Considerations with Live Vaccines, Inactivated and Subunit Vaccines, and DNA Vaccines The organisms in live vaccines are subjected to freeze-drying and, less commonly, to deep freezing at s -CHIC.In order to maintain the viability of organisms under these conditions, the formulation includes complex mixtures of proteins, peptides or amino acids, sugars, and mineral salts.

The viability of organisms is additionally protected using stabilizers such as lactose or other saccharine, skim milk, and serum. 2. Other Dosage Forms Large Volume Parental (LAP) Solutions Parental solutions are packaged as large volume parental (LAP) solutions and small volume parental (SSP) solutions.LAP solutions are typically bags or bottles containing larger volumes of intravenous solutions. Common uses of LAP solutions without additives include: 1) correction of electrolyte and fluid balance disturbances; 2) nutrition; and 3) vehicle for administering other drugs. Large volume parental solutions are packaged in containers holding 100 ml or more.

There are three types of containers: glass bottle with an air vent tube, glass bottle without an air vent tube, and plastic bags.Plastic bags have advantages over glass bottles: they do not break; they weigh less; they take up less storage space, and they take up much less disposal space. However, some drugs adsorb to the plastic. Also, some drugs and solutions leach a plasticizer out of the plastic; the plasticizer is included to keep the plastic pliable.

There are now newer plastics that minimize some of these robbers. Plastic bags are available in different sizes. The most common sizes are 250, 500, and 1 ,OHO ml. The top of the bag has a flap with a hole in it to hang the bag on an administration pole.Graduation marks are on the front of the bag to indicate the volume of solution used. They are marked at 25 ml to 100 ml intervals depending on the overall size of the bag.

The plastic bag system collapses as the solution is administered so a vacuum is not created inside the bag. Oral Reiteration Solutions To prevent too much liquid being lost from the child’s body, an effective oral dehydration solution can be made using ingredients found in almost every household. One of these drinks should be given to the child every time a watery stool is passed.Ideally these drinks (preferably those that have been boiled) should contain: starches and/or sugars as a source of glucose and energy, some sodium and preferably some potassium.

The following traditional remedies make highly effective oral reiteration solutions and are suitable drinks to prevent a child from losing too much liquid during diarrhea: Breastwork Gruels (diluted mixtures of cooked cereals and water) Carrot Soup Rice water – Conge A very suitable and effective simple solution for reiterating a child can also be made by using salt and sugar, if these ingredients are available.If possible, add 1 /2 cup orange juice or some mashed banana to improve the taste and provide some potassium. Molasses and other forms of raw sugar can be used instead of white sugar, and these contain more potassium than white sugar. Irrigating Solutions Some examples of irrigation solutions used in Belize are sterile water for irrigations and sodium chloride solution (Sea – Cleans). Sterile irrigating lotions are sterile isotonic solutions, made under sterile conditions. They are generally used for washing, irrigation and rinsing purposes.Sterile water is a sterile, hypotonic, non-pyrotechnic irrigating fluid entirely composed of Sterile Water for Injection USPS. It is prepared by distillation and contains no antimicrobial or biostatistics agents or added buffers.

Special considerations include that sterile water is hypotonic and will cause hemolytic, and is not recommended for use during surgical procedures. Also, after opening container, its contents should be used promptly to minimize he possibility of bacterial growth or pyroxene formation.Furthermore, sodium chloride solution for irrigation is a sterile saline solution is used to wash, flush, or rinse parts of the body (e. G. , wounds) or medical supplies/ equipment (e.

G. , dressings, catheters, drainage tubes). Special considerations include that you should not connect flexible plastic containers of intravenous solutions in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from one container before administration of the laid from a secondary container is completed.

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