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Social- Cognitive theory believes that humans are individuals who are capable of proactively making things happen to assist in their own development (Parajes, 2002). In Good Will Hunting, Will Hunting did not believe that he was able to make a positive change in his life. Will is a prodigy, particularly in mathematics, who did not recognize his gift. He was born and raised in the slums, where he is now comfortable. He was abandoned by his parents and in and out of numerous foster homes. He experienced abuse and neglect in these homes. He was not only physically abused but also mentally and psychologically.

His ability to solve complicated mathematical equations caught the eye of a professor at the university where Will was employed. These equations had taken geniuses years to solve. The professor immediately took a liking to Will and desired to help him see his worth. He wanted Will to move forward in life.

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Will was not interested. His past failures influenced his decisions (Pajares, 2002). After seeing that Will was not at all interested, the professor seeked the help of his friend, a therapist. The therapist used empathy to assists Will.

Wills view on life was negative. He does not feel he deserves a better life.His therapist helped him develop ways to change his behavioral pattern (Glanz, Rimer & Lewis, 2005). •Section 1: Character Personality Matrix •Theory •Major Components Structure Process Growth and Development Psychopathology Change 1. Social-Cognitive Theory In Social-Cognitive theory the mind contains schemas. Schemas are “preexisting ideas in the mind” (Pervin, Cervone & Oliver, 2005). We use schemas to make sense of the chaos around us (Pervin et. al, 2005).

In Good Will Hunting, Will Hunting was abused and endured a hard life. His knowledge kept him and helped him make sense of his crazy world.He secretly answers difficult math problems at MIT, where he works as a janitor. He demonstrates many different schemas.

Will Hunting has a negative self-schema. He believes he is worthless and deserves nothing better than the “southie” life he has. He is extremely intelligent, which could take him to greater places in life, but he doesn’t feel he deserves it. He is scared of change and feels more comfortable in the world he grew up in. Will meets a girl who he falls in love with but will not allow himself to show her how he feels. He didn’t want to accept her love for him because he felt he did not deserve it.Self-discrepancies have to be resolved to avoid conflict in one’s self (Higgins, 1999). Growth and development occurs through observing and direct experience.

Will was in need of therapy. He met with many therapists who were not able to connect with him. The choice of therapy used by these therapists was not effective. Will’s issues stemmed from “distorted, incorrect and maladaptive cognitions concerning the self, others and events in the world” (Pervin et.

al, p. 322, 2005). The one therapist that was able to eventually connect with Will was able to help him replace his maladaptive cognitions with realistic thoughts.

This therapy is called Rational emotive-therapy (RET). Will was asked how he felt about different situations and what he said to himself. Cognitive Therapy was also used. Will’s therapist told him about his relationship with his wife and the positive outcome of letting go and falling in love. This was something that Will was not accustomed to. Will was able to make changes in his life with the help of his therapy. He finally realized that he did not have to remain in the situation he was in.

He finally accepted the fact that the negative things that affected his life were not his fault.In the end he accepted the love of a woman by leaving his hometown and following her to an unfamiliar place. He also now had the confidence to take on whatever employment or career that would come his way.

2. Rogers’ Theory Rogers’ phenomenological theory states that an individual tries to behave in the way that is consistent with their own structure (Pervin et. al, 2005). Will sees himself as a “southie”, a loser. To maintain congruence between his self-view and his experiences his acts out. He starts fights and stays in trouble. He doesn’t seek anything better for himself.In Rogers’ theory an individual strives for self-actualization.

Will is brilliant and has knowledge about many topics. He reads a lot to keep himself knowledgeable. He answers difficult math problems that are put on a board at MIT, where he works as a janitor. In trying to maintain congruence between his self-view and his experiences he does not trust anyone. When someone tries to get close and help him he denies needing help. Will is defensive towards everyone he comes in contact with. He experiences incongruence with his cockiness of being smarter than most but he doesn’t feel he deserves better than living as a nobody.Will’s ability to push all his therapists and his girlfriend away shows his defensiveness.

He keeps this tough boy attitude to make others not want to care about him because no one ever has. Rogers’ pathology includes defensive maintenance of self (Pervin et al. , 2005). Will’s therapist was concerned about Will and took an “active role in understanding the experiences of the client” (Pervin et al, p.

198, 2005). This therapy is called Client-Centered Therapy. The therapist doesn’t try to change Will but accepts him as he is. Will eventually changes by embracing his new found relationship with his girlfriend and realizes his potential.

•Section 2: Application of Personality Theory •Theory Description and Rationale Social-Cognitive Theory (SCT) is the theory that describes hoe behavior is learned. SCT helps to determine how and why an individual behaves and thinks a certain way. The main idea of social-cognitive theory is that everyone develops their own schemas based on their experiences in life. “Schemas are knowledge structures that guide and organize the processing of information” (Capuzzi & Gross, 2005). When an individual hears a song on the radio that they have never heard before, it makes sense to the individual.The individual has developed schemas has to how the music is supposed to sound (Pervin, Cervone & John, 2005). We use schemas to make sense of our chaotic environment.

In Good Will Hunting, the character Will Hunting came from a difficult and harsh environment. He lived his life based on these experiences. •Character Description Will Hunting is a young man who grew up in the slums of Boston. He went from foster home to foster home. In these homes he was abused and mistreated.

He hung out with his closest friends, who are all trouble makers, below average knuckleheads. Yet, they were true and loyal to each other.Will, on the other hand, was a genius, a prodigy of math. He was determined not to let this side of him show. He stayed in and out of trouble with the law.

He had no faith in himself. He possessed low self-efficacy, “a construct that reflects optimistic self- beliefs” (Lippke, Wiedemann, Ziegelman, Reuter & Schwarzer, 2009, p. 522).

He believed that the deprived life he lived was all he was worthy of. He purposely destroyed his relationship with his girlfriend once he felt her love for him. He thought himself to be unworthy of it. He developed a negative self- schema. •Character Analysis •StructureIn Social-Cognitive theory the mind contains schemas. Schemas are “preexisting ideas in the mind” (Pervin, Cervone & Oliver, 2005). We use schemas to make sense of the chaos around us (Pervin et.

al, 2005). In Good Will Hunting, Will Hunting was abused and endured a hard life. His knowledge kept him and helped him make sense of his crazy world. He secretly answers difficult math problems at MIT, where he works as a janitor. He demonstrates many different schemas. •Process Will Hunting has a negative self-schema. He believes he is worthless and deserves nothing better than the “southie” life he has.He is extremely intelligent, which could take him to greater places in life, but he doesn’t feel he deserves it.

He is scared of change and feels more comfortable in the world he grew up in. Will meets a girl who he falls in love with but will not allow himself to show her how he feels. He didn’t want to accept her love for him because he felt he did not deserve it. Self-discrepancies have to be resolved to avoid conflict in one’s self (Higgins, 1999). •Growth and Development Growth and development occurs through observing and direct experience. Examining how an individual views life will assist in the development.

Determining why an individual behaves a certain way is necessary. The causes of events are called attributions, which involve a casual factor responsible for an observed event (Pervin et al. , 2005). Will constantly heard what a failure he was. It’s no surprise that he would believe that to be true. Will’s therapist tries to reverse the misconception. He constantly told Will how bright he was and how much he could achieve. Will could either change his thoughts of himself based on this new or continue to believe what he’s been told all his life.

•Psychopathology Will was in need of therapy.He met with many therapists who were not able to connect with him. The choice of therapy used by these therapists was not effective. Will’s issues stemmed from “distorted, incorrect and maladaptive cognitions concerning the self, others and events in the world” (Pervin et.

al, p. 322, 2005). The one therapist that was able to eventually connect with Will was able to help him replace his maladaptive cognitions with realistic thoughts (Corey ; Corey, 2007). This therapy is called rational emotive-therapy (RET). Will was asked how he felt about different situations and what he said to himself.Cognitive Therapy was also used. Will’s therapist told him about his relationship with his wife and the positive outcome of letting go and falling in love.

This was something that Will was not accustomed to. •Change Will was able to make changes in his life with the help of his therapy. He finally realized that he did not have to remain in the situation he was in. He finally accepted the fact that the negative things that affected his life were not his fault. In the end he accepted the love of a woman by leaving his hometown and following her to an unfamiliar place.

He also now had the confidence to take on whatever employment or career that would come his way. His expectations for himself were now higher. He was able to move forward and make positive changes in his life.

•Internal and External Factors Internal and external factors shaped Will’s personality. He felt unwanted, unloved and abandoned due to not being raised by his own family. He went from foster home to foster home being abused in each one. He did not know how to love or how to receive it because love was never shown to him. These factors made him the young man he was. Will did not recognize his potential.According to Bandura (1997) people base their actions and level of motivation on what they tend to believe and not on what is true. The positive feedback and encouragement from Will’s therapist helped Will make a positive change.

He constantly expressed to Will that he was worthy of having a good life and being loved. His best friend even tells him that he better not still be a “southie” fifty years from now. He let Will know that he saw the potential in him. Eventually Will made a break through after being told that everything negative that happened in his life was not his fault.He was able to embrace the positive things that were waiting for him. •Conclusion Use the BodyText Double style to type text in the conclusion.

•Reference List Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman Pervin, L.

A. , Cervone, D. , & John, O.

(2005). CST5214: Theories of personality (Custom). NY: Wiley. Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retreived December 13, 2010, from http://www.

emory. edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff. html Glanz, K. , Rimer, B. K.

& Lewis, F. M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice.San Francisco: Wiley & Sons. Lippke, S.

, Wiedemann, A. , Ziegelmann, J. , Reuter, T. & Schwarzer, R. (2009). Self-Efficacy Moderates the mediation of intentions into behavior via plans.

Ameriacn Journal of Health Behavior, 33(5), 521-529. Higgins, E. T. (1999). Persons or situations: Unique explanatory principles or variability in general principles? In D. Cervone & Y. Shoda (Eds. ), the coherence of personality: Social-cognitive bases of consistency, variability, and organization (pp.

61-93). New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press Corey, M. & Corey, G. (2007).

Becoming a Helper 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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