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Beyond ecolabels: what green marketing can learn from conventional marketing Abstract Ecolabels have emerged as one of the main tools of green marketing.

Although a great deal of effort has been invested in making them more effective and efficient, the market share of ecolabelled products is still low, partly because they have been addressed mainly to ‘green’ consumers. In a theoretical exposition of marketing theory, we find that green marketing could learn from conventional marketing in discovering other means than labelling to promote green products.Examples include addressing a wider range of consumers, working with the positioning strategies of price, place and promotion and actively engaging in market creation. http://www. sciencedirect. com Green Marketing: A Challenge or an Opportunity in the Global Environment The earlier perception of industry towards green marketing was that the pressure for making business environment green and behaving in a more responsible manner especially comes from Government and its legislations.

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Now that old perception is changing throughout the globe as studies performed on consumers reflect that in most countries consumers are becoming more aware and willing to act on environmental concerns. There is a radical change in consumer preferences and life styles. They prefer environment friendly products over the others and many times are ready to pay a little extra price for such green products. Due to this shift from traditional marketing to green marketing, companies these days are facing many new challenges.This can also be viewed as a source of new opportunities to grow in today’s highly competitive global environment. A 2008 survey by the National Geographic Society and GlobScan on consumer choice and the environment reported on current behavior in fourteen countries (including Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Mexico, Russia, the UK and the US).

The study found signs that consumer in all countries “feel empowered when it comes to the environment and are taking some action in their daily lives to reduce consumption and waste. A global Synovate survey conducted in 2007 in association with Aegis, and repeated in 2008 in association with BBC World, also found that consumers in most countries are becoming more aware and willing to act on environmental concerns. Most of such studies on green philosophy and green marketing are done in developed countries but such studies however, remain conspicuously missing in the context of developing economies like India. The present study discusses the concept of green marketing and its interface with consumers in India.A field survey of consumers was conducted to understand their perception towards green marketing and preference for green products. The data collected was analyzed by using the T-test and One Way ANOVA. The results of the study are highly relevant in this challenging era of liberalization and globalization and can be used by industries for exploring and exploiting new opportunities.

This study also provides future direction to researchers in the field of green marketing. http://gsj. cgpublisher. comInternational green marketing: A comparative study of British and Romanian firms Abstract Purpose – The market of ecological products is growing exponentially at global level, however, there are very few studies focused on the international marketing strategies of eco-firms. Seeks to address the issues. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of the information collected during interviews conducted with six British and six Romanian eco-firms with international activity, the main opportunities and challenges for international green marketing are identified and analysed.Findings – The findings show important differences between the Romanian and the British firms, mainly determined by the level of development of their domestic market.

The Romanian firms usually export ecological products using foreign agents, while the British firms sell internationally using their own brand name and attempting to control the foreign distribution channels.The similarity of the foreign market selection process applied by the UK eco-firms has allowed the development of a tentative theoretical framework in the second part of the paper. http://www. emeraldinsight. com Awareness of Eco-label in Malaysia’s Green Marketing Initiative Abstract Consumer awareness of the environment and preference for more environmentally benign products appears to be growing steadily around the developed world and also some developing countries. The Malaysian government too has responded very positively to this challenge.

In 1996 Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) lunched the national eco-labeling program verifying products according to environmental criteria such as Environmentally Degradable, Non-toxic Plastic Packaging Material, Hazardous Metal-Free Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Biodegradable Cleaning Agents and Recycled Paper. Federal Agriculture Marketing Authority (FAMA) has the Malaysia Best logo for environment friendly agriculture product and the Malaysian Energy Commission for energy efficient electrical products.But is the Malaysia consumer ready for the eco-label? Taking into consideration the infancy stage of the Malaysia green marketing initiative, traditional approach to evaluating local consumer receptiveness to the eco-label might not be suitable. This paper approaches the introduction of eco-label with two perspectives in mind.

Firstly, while earlier studies from the western scholars use eco-label as a part of the augmented product, this study introduces eco-label as a separate moderating variable.Secondly, the choice of employees working in ISO14001 certified organization as the study population explore a potentially conducive place to initiate a systematic effort in developing a green consumer community. The result is very encouraging. This study has clearly shown that, with some exposure to environmental related experiences (such as those who were working with organization implementing the EMS) Malaysian consumer would indeed react positively to the eco-label.

In fact, for situation that requires them to consider environmental aspects of a product that they wish to purchase, the eco-label will definitely be the crucial factor that will push them to make the right purchase choice. http://www. ccsenet. org Green Marketing Environmentally-responsible or “green” marketing is a business practice that takes into account consumer concerns about promoting preservation and conservation of the natural environment.Green marketing campaigns highlight the superior environmental protection characteristics of a company’s products and services, whether those benefits take the form of reduced waste in packaging, increased energy efficiency in product use, or decreased release of toxic emissions and other pollutants in production. As the Encyclopedia of the Environment noted, marketers have responded to growing consumer demand for environment-friendly products in several ways: “by promoting the environmental attributes of their products; by introducing new products; and by redesigning existing products—all components of environmental marketing.

Indeed, marketing campaigns touting the environmental ethics of companies and the environmental advantages of their products have proliferated in recent years. Most observers agree that while some businesses engage in green marketing solely because such an emphasis will enable them to make a profit, other businesses conduct their operations in an environmentally-sensitive fashion because their owners and managers feel a responsibility to preserve the integrity of the natural environment even as they satisfy consumer needs and desires.Indeed, true green marketing emphasizes environmental stewardship.

Environmental Marketing author Walter Coddington, for example, defined environmental marketing as “marketing activities that recognize environmental stewardship as a business development responsibility and business growth responsibility. Another analyst of green marketing, Greener Marketing editor Martin Charter, defined the practice as “a holistic and responsible strategic management process that identifies, anticipates, satisfies and fulfills stakeholder needs for a reasonable reward that does not adversely affect human or natural environmental well-being. ” Such interpretations expand on the traditional understanding of business’s responsibilities and goals. http://www. referenceforbusiness. com Green MarketingAccording to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising.

Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term.Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. The legal implications of marketing claims call for caution. Misleading or overstated claims can lead to regulatory or civil challenges. In the USA, the Federal Trade Commission provides some guidance on environmental marketing claims. This Commission is expected to do an overall review of this guidance, and the legal standards it contains, in 2011.

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