In this lab we had to design a system that would test if changing the mass, angle of release and length would have any effect on the period of a pendulum. Hypothesis As the length, mass and angle of release change, the period (T) will change for each one of these factors. Materials Lab stand Protractor Cardboard Fishing line Stopwatch Weights Hook for weights Tape Ruler Weighing scale Logger Pro Variables Independent Angle of release Dependent Period Length of string Mass of bob Design Procedure First you have to set the lab up as seen above.
Draw the protractor on a piece of paper and stick this piece of paper on a cardboard board. Attach this cardboard board to the lab stand with educate. Attach the string to the lab stand and add the hook with mass to the string. Then you can start testing the affect of change when the angle of release changes. Look at your protractor and release the pendulum at an angle of 100. Press the timer as you let go and stop the timer as the bob made a complete cycle. Do this two more times so you have three trials for the release angle of 100.
Then make the angle of release 200 and do three trials again. Change the angel of release with 100 each time for 5 trials. After testing the affect of change in the angle of release you can start testing the effect of change when you change the length of the pendulum. Start with any length and every time add a constant amount of extra length. Take three trials per addition of length and keep the mass the same. For example, you start with a mass of gar and a length of 20 CM, you test the period of the pendulum with length of 20 CM three times using the same angle of release.
And after three trials, you add 2 CM, so you have 22 CM, and take three trials again, and you keep doing this until you have 10 sets with 3 trials. As last we test the affect of change when the mass is changed. Start with a mass of gar and keep the length the same and the angle of release also the same. Then take 3 trials with the mass of gar. And add 5 gar. Take three trials with a mass of 55 gar and add another gar. Keep doing this until you have 10 sets of 3 trials with different masses. After recording all your data you should analyze it on logger pro. And seeing which line or curve fits the data best.
That is why the curve does not exactly fit the data points. With an increase of mass, I again had the same problem. The data was not accurate because it was again difficult to be precise with the angle of release. For the length of the pendulum I did see a change. The period increased when the length of the pendulum was increasing. I choose the quadratic equation because that’s the equation that fit the best with my data points. During the pendulum lab I have found a lot of sources of error. My reaction mime with the timer could have affected the time a lot.
The way I tied the string to the lab stand could also have affected the way that the pendulum oscillated. Put the lab stand on a table but it could be that this table was not completely horizontal, so that could have also affected my data. The protractor that made and glued onto a piece of cardboard could also not have been exactly straight. I also noticed that my pendulum would not always swing straight it would swing at a weird angle because I released it wrong. This could also have affected the data a lot.
There was also air blowing on the pendulum because of the air conditioning. There was also a lot sources for systematic errors. Such as the protractor and the meter stick. All of these errors could have been prevented and if I would do the lab again I would change all of these factors. Such as redesigning the lab so that photo gates could time the period. Making sure that the table was straight, and making a better protractor that is more accurate. To make sure that the pendulum would swing completely straight I could have changed the way in which I would release the pendulum.