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SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT GOALS 10

REDUCE INEQUALITY IN INDONESIA

Arranged to Complete The Final Task
of TPB (Tahapan Persiapan Bersama) Subject

Arranged by:

Khansa Nadika (NPM. 240210170045)

 

FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY
TECHNOLOGY

PADJADJARAN UNIVERSITY

JATINANGOR

2017/2018

PREFACE

The
praise and gratitude of the author pray to Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala because of
His mercy and blessings, the author can finish a paper entitled “Sustainable
Development Goals 10 Reduce Inequality in Indonesia” well and timely.

On
this occasion, the author conveys the gratitude to the parties who have been
petrified in making this paper. The author realizes that the writing of this
paper is still far from perfect and still many shortcomings, therefore the
authors expect suggestions and constructive criticism from all parties in order
to achieve a better paper again. Hopefully, this paper is useful for all
parties.

 

 

Bandung, January 8th , 2018

 

Author

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
PREFACE.. i
TABLE OF CONTENTS. ii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.1      Issues
Background. 1
1.2      Problem
Formulation. 1
1.3      Purpose. 2
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION.. 3
2.1      The
Meaning of Social Inequality. 3
2.2      Factors
that Affect The Occurrence of Social Inequality in Indonesia. 4
2.3      Impact
of Social Inequality. 4
2.4      Efforts
to Reduce Social Inequality. 5
2.5      Perspective
of Pancasila and Citizenship about Social Inequality. 6
CHAPTER III FINAL.. 8
3.1      Conclusion. 8
3.2      Advice. 8
REFERENCES. 9
 

 

 

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1             
Issues Background

Inequalities
based on economic growth, income, gender, age, health, ethnicity, culture, religion,
poverty, unequal access to facilities, unequal opportunities, lack of access to
jobs resulting in unemployment, etc. are problems that can’t be solved entirely
in the life of the world community. In fact, in a global survey conducted by
the UN Development Program, policymakers from around the world recognize that
inequalities in their countries are generally high and potentially threatening
long-term social and economic development.

Also
included in Indonesia, a country with the population of about 240 million
people, consisting of thousands of islands, various ethnicities, cultures,
religions with the population that increases every year, Indonesia certainly
doesn’t escape from various problems that arise, including poverty, education
problems, health, and others. This has led to inequalities in people’s lives,
especially the social inequality. The social inequality is triggered by
widespread poverty. Social inequalities are common in urban areas, but they are
also likely to occur in rural areas or both. Because in the urban is easy to
see between the rich and the poor. Where a person who has a high social status
always alienates someone who has low social status or vice versa.

This
social inequality doesn’t reflect justice. Therefore, it takes effort from the
government and society to jointly reduce the gaps that arise in various aspects
of community life to realize the life of a prosperous society. To reduce the
worldwide inequality, the UN (United Nations) has formulated the strategies
contained in the SDGs Goals 10.

1.2             
Problem Formulation

Based
on the background, the problems that arise can be formulated as follows:

1.      What
is the meaning of social inequality?

2.      What
are the factors that influence social inequalities in Indonesia?

3.      What
are the impacts of social inequalities in society?

4.      How
are the efforts done in reducing social inequalities in the community?

5.      How
are social inequalities seen from the point of view of Pancasila and
Citizenship?

1.3             
Purpose

The purpose of writing this paper, namely:

1.      To
fulfill the final task of TPB subject.

2.      To
know the understanding of social inequality.

3.      To
know the factors that affect the occurrence of social inequality in Indonesia.

4.      To
know the impact of social inequality in the society.

5.      To
know the efforts undertaken in reducing social inequalities in the community.

6.      To
know the perspective of Pancasila and Citizenship about social inequality in
society.

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

2.1             
The Meaning of Social
Inequality

According
to KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary), the gap comes from the word
“gap” which means not symmetrical, not the same part on the left and
on the right, parallel, very different, different, there is a gap. Meanwhile,
according to Badruzaman (2009), social inequality is a social imbalance that
exists in the community so that makes a very striking difference.

Social
inequalities arise from differences in status in social, economic, or political
life. Social inequality is a complex phenomenon that occurs almost in every
country in the world, including Indonesia. The rights and obligations of the
people aren’t evenly distributed and the lack of access to utilize available
resources and unequal opportunities. The current gap or inequality in Indonesia
is clearly visible, for example in political life that is between state
officials and the public. When state officials are admitted guilty before the
law as corrupt, but in the execution of punishment, they are given a special
facility that they clearly do as they wish and break the rules. In contrast to ordinary
people, for example, when stealing sandals alone can be charged with severe
penalties. This, of course, leads to injustice and a high inequality between
upper and lower classes.

Then
there is the oppression of people who have low social status by people who have
a high social status such as discrimination for those who have mental
disability or malnutrition, different race, and religion or the difference of
the smart and the fool in terms of education. And the most influential in the
economic field is the large or small income earned that determines the level of
poverty of a person. These problems occur because one part feels better and
have a high or powerful position than another. It makes the paradigm in the
society that the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer.

2.2             
Factors that Affect the
Occurrence of Social Inequality in Indonesia

One
of the causes of social inequality is the obstacles to getting a decent life and
not getting the same opportunities with other groups. Basically, the factors
that affect the inequalities are divided into 2, namely:

1.      Internal
Factors

Internal
factors are factors that come from inside a person, in which the low quality of
human resources due to the low level of education and health as well as the
emergence of the culture of poverty. Poverty is the biggest and major factor
determining social inequalities in society, where social inequality stems from
poverty. This culture of poverty continues from generation to generation if
they don’t improve their quality of life by working hard, eliminating laziness
and apathy, and having an orientation toward the future. A social gap begins
when a person is in the mother’s womb when the mother is unable to provide
complete health facilities when in the womb, during childbirth, and in the
child’s nutritional fulfillment hinders her growth and stunting due to lack of
cost. Then because of the high cost of education, the child is not able to continue
his education up to college, and can’t get a decent job. This is very different
when we compare with the mother who is able to satisfy all the facilities of
his child to be able to get a decent job.

 

2.      External
Factors

External factors
are factors that come from outside a person. This happens not because of lazy
work or low resources but because of official government policies or certain
agencies, thus limiting one’s chances to take advantage of the available
opportunities. The lack of employment resulting in unemployment is also a
factor in the emergence of social inequality because a work is a source of
people’s economy.

2.3             
Impact of Social
Inequality

The social inequality has both positive
and negative impacts. The positive impact, which encourages all groups to be
grateful for what they have and empathize with fellow human deficiencies. But
social inequality also has a negative impact on people’s lives, such as the
increasingly widespread crime that occurs especially in urban areas where the
social gap is very high. This crime arises from social jealousy and lack of
employment, so to keep up with the necessities of life many people are willing
to do anything to survive. The next is the heightened nature of egoism and individualism.
So that social welfare can’t be achieved.

2.4             
Efforts to Reduce
Social Inequality

To reduce the social inequality,
cooperation between the government and the community is needed. In reducing the
gap, the UN plays a role in formulating some of the targets and strategies
summarized in the Goal 10 SDGs. Here are some possible efforts:

1.      Government
Efforts

a)      Provide
equal opportunities in education, to obtain a proper education for all
communities.

b)      Provide
adequate health facilities for underprivileged communities.

c)      Creating
as many jobs as possible.

d)     Equity
in development in all regions and not focused in urban areas.

2.      Society
Efforts

a)      Obey
the commands of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala and stay away from His prohibitions.

b)      Work
hard to improve the quality of life.

c)      Growing
a sense of love for the homeland, nation, and country.

d)     Be
fair and social.

e)      Appreciate
the difference

3.      UN
Efforts

According
to Son (2016), the goal achievement strategy of SDGs goal 10 as follows:

a)      Increasing
the absorption of the poor and productive labor force into the leading
manufacturing sector.

b)      Development
of value-added processing value ranta activities to support the local economic
development and leading commodities based on agro-industry.

c)      Improvement
of major commodity distribution chain in favor of smallholders.

d)     Development
of local economy in outer islands based on local natural potency.

2.5             
Perspective of
Pancasila and Citizenship about Social Inequality

Indonesia
is based on five principles called Pancasila as the basis of the state and the
1945 Constitution as the basic law. In practice, Indonesia must continue to
keep up Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution. If one point is ignored from
Pancasila and not practiced in daily life, then there will be serious problems,
one of which is what we are discussing now is social inequality.

The
social gap is related to Pancasila, the first precept that reads “Believe
in The One Supreme God”. A nation that believes in the existence of God
means upholding moral values and decency. One of the impacts of the increasing
social inequality is a crime. Crime is a disgraceful act in which there is a
deprivation of the rights of others. This means, the fear of the Creator,  Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala, has faded and they
don’t uphold Godhead.

The
current social inequality in Indonesia does not reflect justice and contradicts
the fifth precept of Pancasila which reads “Social Justice for All the People
of Indonesia”. This fifth precept means that all Indonesians are entitled to
equal opportunity to gain access to equal economic life, adequate education,
and a decent life. And also we must be fair to others, not to use the property
for wastes and fancy lifestyles, respecting the rights of others to be
respected by others. Because in truth, in what we have, there are other
people’s rights that we have to fulfill. In accordance with the ideals of the
Indonesian people listed in the preamble of the 1945 Constitution that “…protecting
the whole Indonesian nation and the entire Indonesian blood sphere and to promote
the general welfare, educate the life of the nation…” which in its achievement
required cooperation between all parties. The fact remains that the problem of
social inequality means that Indonesia hasn’t been able to achieve the welfare
of the people as a whole. In Article 34 paragraph 1-4 of the 1945 Constitution
explained the existence of state obligations in the field of social welfare to
realize life in accordance with the dignity and human dignity.

The
social inequality contradicts Pancasila’s second precept which reads “Justice
and Civilized Humanity”. The second precept implies recognizing equality,
rights, and duties among fellow human beings regardless of their social,
economic, and political status, then there is a sense of mutual love of each
other despite differences, then to develop a tolerant and non-arbitrary
attitude towards others, and uphold the value of humanity.

The
social inequality also contradicts the third precept of Pancasila which reads
“The Unity of Indonesia”. This third precept has the meaning that
Indonesia strongly upholds unity in holiness both in terms of religion, race,
ethnicity, culture, and others. While social inequality itself triggers
division in society. In Article 27 paragraph 3 of the 1945 Constitution explained
that we are required to live harmonious and tolerant of differences and uphold
the Unity in Diversity.

 

 

CHAPTER III

                                                                      FINAL

3.1             
Conclusion

It
can be concluded that social inequality is a complex problem that needs to be
addressed by the government and targeted as an effort to prosper the people of
Indonesia. Poverty and the low quality of education which continues to
unemployment are the main factors driving social inequality in Indonesia. The
impact of social inequality one of them is the existence of criminal acts. To
overcome these impacts, the way is to eradicate poverty, maximize education,
and open up jobs as much as possible. And also by applying Pancasila as a
guideline of life.

 

3.2             
Advice

In
addressing the social inequalities which are the world biggest problem that
causing serious and threatening impacts to the nation, we as Indonesian have to
be able to help the government to eradicate the social inequality by starting
from ourselves with care to others because the government can’t work alone. Therefore,
the people of Indonesia can get a decent life and the fulfillment of rights and
prosperous society according to what is aspired in the 1945 Constitution.

REFERENCES

Badruzaman, A. 2009. Dari Teologi Menuju Aksi (Membela yang
Lemah, Menggempur Kesenjangan). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Son, D. 2016. STRATEGI PENCAPAIAN TARGET DAN INDIKATOR SDGs. Retrived on January
9th 2018, from http://indconsult.blogspot.co.id/2016/03/stra

Mustikasari, A. 2013. Kesenjangan Sosial. Retrived on January
10th 2018, from http://mustikaanitaaa.blogspot.co.id/2013/11/kesenjangan-sosial.html

 

 

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