The results from the first test was hat most of the alkaline were soluble, the ones that were not soluble did not change even if heat was added to try to promote solubility. The results from the second test when bromine was added was that there was no change to any of the solutions. The solubility of alkaline results were accepted. While the results for the test when bromine was added were not accepted because there was no reaction from any of the solutions. Introduction The universal rule for solubility is that “like dissolves like”.
This means that polar alkaline will only dissolve in polar solutions while monopole alkaline with dissolve n monopole solutions. Alkaline are considered to by hydrocarbons that contain singe bonds between carbons. When testing for the solubility of a hydrocarbon either a homogeneous solution or heterogeneous solution will be seen. A homogeneous solution is one that does not have any layers which means the hydrocarbon is soluble, while a heterogeneous solution will form layers showing that the hydrocarbon is not soluble (Spurious). See if what she says about the reactivity.
Halogenated is defined as the replacement of one or more hydrogen atom within an organic compound by a halogen. In this experiment bromine is used as the halogen. Halogenated is a substitution reaction. Fabrication is considered to be the most stable radical because it is selective for the R-H but is not very reactive compared to the other halogens (Hunt). The experiment must be done under a hood because bromine vapors are very hazardous. Bromine vapors are hazardous because they can cause irritation of mucous membranes if inhaled making it difficult to breathe (Facts). Results Solubility of Alkaline Solvents Dissolved?
How? Water (1 ml + . 5 ml of unknown) no stayed crystallize Methanol (1 ml + . 5 ml of unknown) no stayed crystallize n-butane (1 ml + . 5 ml of unknown) yes completely with heat added Ethylene Glycol (1 ml + . 5 ml of unknown) yes partial Toluene (1 ml + . 5 ml of unknown) yes completely Deceleration (1 ml + . 5 ml of unknown) yes completely Bromine Addition to Alleles Solvents Reaction? Toluene (1 ml of deceleration + 5 drops of toluene) no reaction џ-pine (1 ml of deceleration + 5 drops of џ-pine) no reaction Trans-stillest (1 ml of deceleration + 5 drops of trans-stillest) no reaction Discussion
The results showed that when the unknown is added to the water and methanol it will not dissolve meaning that it is insoluble even when a heat source was added to it. On the other hand, when the unknown alkaline was added to n- butane, ethylene glycol, toluene, and deceleration it did dissolve meaning they are soluble. Both water and methanol are polar substances while n-butane, ethylene glycol, toluene, and deceleration are all monopole substances, because water and methanol are polar the unknown would not dissolve into them because it is a monopole substance (Polar).
The results from the addition of bromine to alleles were all showing that there was no change to the solutions. The halogenated of alleles reaction mechanism is an example of electroscopic addition. Bromine is a very polar molecule so when it has a pi bond from an alkaline approaching it a dipole within the bromine molecule will occur. The addition of bromine will cause the double bonded carbons to break so that bromine can attach to each of the carbons.
Bromine has a reddish-brown color to it but when it breaks the carbon-carbon double bond it will lose its color and appear clear, which allows for the testing for a double bond between carbons in a solution (Clark). Experimental Methods To perform the experiment to test the solubility of alkaline obtain six sample vials. Label each vial starting with one going to six. In the first vial add 1 ml of water. Add 1 ml of methanol to the second and 1 ml of n-butane to third. The fourth vial will contain 1 ml of ethylene glycol and the fifth vial will have 1 ml of toluene in it.
The final vial will have 1 ml of deceleration added to it. Then about . 5 ml (a small scoop) of the unknown alkaline will be added to each ill. The vials will then be stirred to distribute the solution. After stirring decide whether or not the unknown dissolves, if it does not dissolve use a hair dryer to add heat to the solution. After allowing the solutions to heat up state whether or not the unknown dissolved; recorded the results in a table stating the solubility in cold or hot conditions. For the bromine addition to alleles experiment obtain three vials and label them one through three.
In each vial add 1 ml of deceleration then add 5 drops of toluene, џ-pine, and trans-stillest, en to each vial. Then stir the solution together allowing the materials to be dissolved, after stirring add about 5 drops of bromine to each solution. Record the observations in a table. For this experiment the results were not accepted because the solutions should have changed colors but instead they stayed clear, this could be because while adding the bromine the addition occurred to quickly not allowing the reaction to have time to happen or the dropper used to add the bromine was contaminated giving false results.