Onglobal scale, prostate cancer (PCa) is in second place of most common causes ofcancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men (1,2).Approximately 889.
000 additive cases and 258.000 new deaths were reported in2008 alone. Specialists suggest that the global burden of prostate cancer willrise to 1.7 million additive cases and approximately half a million new deathsin 2030 (1). These numbers display an expected rapid growth of new cases in thefuture, however the incidence and trends of prostate cancer show a huge unevendistribution globally (2). Most cases are reported from developed westerncountries, as chronic diseases are the main health issues these countries facenowadays (2). Therefore, most research on prostate cancer has been conducted inwestern countries such as Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom.
These countries are more advanced in screening and treatment which results inlower mortality rates and a higher amount of people under treatment (2).Current treatment consists of various types of therapy and tools includingsurgery, radical prostatectomy (RP), radiation therapy (RT) and hormonalablation (HA) (3). These forms of treatment are used in the majority of menworldwide. Occasionally, a combination of therapies is needed in order to reachthe desired goal within patients. Additional factors contributing to patient’schoice of treatment include the patient’s condition, preference and risk oftherapy (3). All forms of therapy, mentioned earlier, also contain several tomany side-effects. Literature shows that treatment of prostate cancer causessexual, urinary and bowel dysfunction resulting in lower quality of life (4).However, medical specialists still present these effects merely as side-effectsof treatment instead of life impacting events.
Especially, masculineself-esteem and psychosocial consequences are under highlighted, bothclinically and in available literature in comparison to physical consequences.Current literature suggests that masculinity might play a major role inconsequences of prostate cancer treatment as men highly value their sexualfunction and masculinity is strongly bound to cognitive processes (4).The concept of hegemonic masculinityincludes a broad spectrum of practices which make domination of men over womenpossible and these practices also discern themselves from other masculinities(5,6). Hegemonic masculinity is defined as the most widely accepted andnormative form of being a man in a society, which is to be placed within agender order that assumes men and women are mutually exclusive categories (5).This strong division of male and female assets has also shaped the identity andsocial roles of people within a society.
However, the concept of masculinitydoes not limit itself to strong discerns between sexes but it also refers todifferences between men and variations of male identities (5,6). Other types ofmasculinities are also mentioned in Connell’s study (1995) including complicitmasculinities which refers to men that benefit from other man who comply to hegemonicmasculinities (5) and subordinate masculinity which applies more to homosexualmen and men suffering from diseases (5).