o Substation Ethernet switches are optimized in form factor andprotocol support for substation/SCADA environment 22.o The WAN network device is installed between substation or enterpriselocation including network on chips 22.o Smart substations that include monitoring and control of operationaldata such as power factor performance, breaker, transformer and battery status,security 22.o Smart distribution that is self-healing, self-balancing andself-optimizing of failures based on real-time data about weather, outagehistory 22.o Smart generation has power generation resources to optimize energyproduction that automatically maintain voltage, frequency and power factor formultiple points in the grid 22.
I. Cyber Physical SecurityThe smart grid relies on concept ofinteroperability which is mainly consist of all devices, technologies,application including energy producers, consumers and operators to interactwith the smart grid network. Interoperability increases vulnerability and whenutilities migrate to smart grid vulnerability is maximum 24. The Smart Gridcommunication network information exchange in power infrastructures is criticalso for the information security requirements for a system has three securityproperties: · Confidentiality- It prevents anunauthorized user from obtaining private or secret information 24.· Availability- Ensures thatresources can be used whenever requested 24.· Integrity- Modification ofinformation is been prevented from unauthorized user 24. Cyber physicalsecurity involves some security concerns and threat that are explained in 25:· Centralized network identityand access control- securing access, identity and data privacy for smart gridinformation over the network 25.
· Public key infrastructure- Reducingsystem vulnerabilities to physical or cyber-attacks 25.· Network segmentation and accesscontrol – It supports network reliability and grid communication wellestablished for threat defence mechanism for denial of service attacks 25. Cyber physicalsystem on Device level like smart meters:· Metering device must bedesigned for self-protection from hacking 26.· Data packets must not be send toarbitrary component such as IED or distributed control processor in asubstation 26.· Control over the AMI network-meter traffic must never reach out of its boundary to access a substation 26.· Isolation of AMI from othernetworks so considerable amount of time and effort in detailing such a securityinfrastructure 26.
II. Research ChallengesThe goal ofsmart grid is to improve energy efficiency by investing in modernization ofenergy infrastructure. The use ofrenewable energy and smart grids will increase the electricity demand by 75% infuture and also cost of generating 1 kwh is four times greater than cost ofgeneration in traditional grid. Smart meters will be installed in homes andbusinesses to develop technology for distribution automation, demandmanagement, distributed generation substation intelligence and informationtechnology. The goal is to increase energy efficiency through demandoptimization and distributed automation by significantly reducing peak load26, 27. Issues that have been identified dealing with information technologyand smart grids are as follows.1. Advances in flexible ACtransmission devices (FACTS) and phasor measurement units (PMU) 26.
2. Data fusion and analysis forreal time dynamics monitoring, system control and prediction 26.3.
Increase in wide areacommunication and control to system operation, tight coupling is needed betweencyber and physical system in smart grid 26.4. Hybrid digital analog systems,complex emergent systems and time varying distributed systems 26.So Advances inoptimization in dynamic systems as well as distributed control are necessary toimprove efficiency, security, reliability with respect to smart gridperformance 26. Somerecommendations in challenges of cyber physical system:· Standardized architectures arerequired for modular design and development of cyber-physical systems 26, 27.· New frameworks and algorithmsare required in CPS applications that interact through a complex, coupledphysical environment as reliability and security pose particular challenges26, 27.· Future cyber-physical systemswill require hardware and software components that are highly dependable,reconfigurable 26, 27.III.
ConclusionSmart grids have been radically evolving from a closed system to ahighly interactive, distributed, interconnected environment. It integrateslarge amounts of renewable energy into power systems and it is the mosteffective way to expand power system to meet the challenges of future. Thus,smart grid not only provide security, reliability, renewable energy goals butsave the money of user by managing electricity and even more you can generateyour own power. The internet of energy technology enables the smart grid bymaking cyber physical system to aid the communication and the physical layerstogether. The paper explored the general communication architecture beforeexploring the various embedded systems used in smart grid on supply and demandside.
It also illustrated several research challenges in smart grid.