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o    Substation Ethernet switches are optimized in form factor and
protocol support for substation/SCADA environment 22.

o    The WAN network device is installed between substation or enterprise
location including network on chips 22.

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o    Smart substations that include monitoring and control of operational
data such as power factor performance, breaker, transformer and battery status,
security 22.

o    Smart distribution that is self-healing, self-balancing and
self-optimizing of failures based on real-time data about weather, outage
history 22.

o    Smart generation has power generation resources to optimize energy
production that automatically maintain voltage, frequency and power factor for
multiple points in the grid 22.

Cyber Physical Security

The smart grid relies on concept of
interoperability which is mainly consist of all devices, technologies,
application including energy producers, consumers and operators to interact
with the smart grid network. Interoperability increases vulnerability and when
utilities migrate to smart grid vulnerability is maximum 24. The Smart Grid
communication network information exchange in power infrastructures is critical
so for the information security requirements for a system has three security

Confidentiality- It prevents an
unauthorized user from obtaining private or secret information 24.

Availability- Ensures that
resources can be used whenever requested 24.

Integrity- Modification of
information is been prevented from unauthorized user 24.


Cyber physical
security involves some security concerns and threat that are explained in 25:

Centralized network identity
and access control- securing access, identity and data privacy for smart grid
information over the network 25.

Public key infrastructure- Reducing
system vulnerabilities to physical or cyber-attacks 25.

Network segmentation and access
control – It supports network reliability and grid communication well
established for threat defence mechanism for denial of service attacks 25.


Cyber physical
system on Device level like smart meters:

Metering device must be
designed for self-protection from hacking 26.

Data packets must not be send to
arbitrary component such as IED or distributed control processor in a
substation 26.

Control over the AMI network-
meter traffic must never reach out of its boundary to access a substation 26.

Isolation of AMI from other
networks so considerable amount of time and effort in detailing such a security
infrastructure 26.

Research Challenges

The goal of
smart grid is to improve energy efficiency by investing in modernization of
energy infrastructure.  The use of
renewable energy and smart grids will increase the electricity demand by 75% in
future and also cost of generating 1 kwh is four times greater than cost of
generation in traditional grid. Smart meters will be installed in homes and
businesses to develop technology for distribution automation, demand
management, distributed generation substation intelligence and information
technology. The goal is to increase energy efficiency through demand
optimization and distributed automation by significantly reducing peak load
26, 27. Issues that have been identified dealing with information technology
and smart grids are as follows.

Advances in flexible AC
transmission devices (FACTS) and phasor measurement units (PMU) 26.

Data fusion and analysis for
real time dynamics monitoring, system control and prediction 26.

Increase in wide area
communication and control to system operation, tight coupling is needed between
cyber and physical system in smart grid 26.

Hybrid digital analog systems,
complex emergent systems and time varying distributed systems 26.

So Advances in
optimization in dynamic systems as well as distributed control are necessary to
improve efficiency, security, reliability with respect to smart grid
performance 26.  

recommendations in challenges of cyber physical system:

Standardized architectures are
required for modular design and development of cyber-physical systems 26, 27.

New frameworks and algorithms
are required in CPS applications that interact through a complex, coupled
physical environment as reliability and security pose particular challenges
26, 27.

Future cyber-physical systems
will require hardware and software components that are highly dependable,
reconfigurable 26, 27.

III. Conclusion

Smart grids have been radically evolving from a closed system to a
highly interactive, distributed, interconnected environment. It integrates
large amounts of renewable energy into power systems and it is the most
effective way to expand power system to meet the challenges of future. Thus,
smart grid not only provide security, reliability, renewable energy goals but
save the money of user by managing electricity and even more you can generate
your own power. The internet of energy technology enables the smart grid by
making cyber physical system to aid the communication and the physical layers
together. The paper explored the general communication architecture before
exploring the various embedded systems used in smart grid on supply and demand
side. It also illustrated several research challenges in smart grid.

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