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Name: XingChen YangStudent number:17343774Tutor: Penny Humby Date:5/1/2018Word count:1135          Essaytitle: Genetically obese        Obesity,is a certain degree of obviously overweight and fat layer overthick, is thebody fat, especially triglyceride accumulation too much and resulting in a state.Weight is one of the important indicators to measure obesity, and weight andheight, height and weight so to express the relationship between body massindex commonly used the weight (kg)/height (m), according to the survey,children’s normal body mass index was 15.5 ~ 21.2;The normal body mass index ofyoung men and women aged 15 to 19 is 18~22;Over 20 years old is 20~24.If thechildren’s body mass index is greater than 21,15 ~19 years old  more than 22 or 20 years old, it is overweight.

If the child body mass index exceeds 22,15 ~19 years old more than 24, over 20years old more than 26, is obese. (National heart ,lung,and boold institute, 2018) A study published on the Lancet on April2, 2016, collected data from 1975 to 2014, providing an overall picture of theBMI trend in adults so far. Studies show that despite the fact that many peoplein the world’s poorest areas are still underweight, obesity is outnumbered on aglobal scale. Over the past 40 years, there has been an astounding increase inthe number of obese people worldwide: from 165 million in 1975 to 6141 millionin 2014. The number of adults with obesity in the world now exceeds those whoare underweight, while the number of obesepeople in China ranks first in the world. (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, 2018)Apart from living habits,obesity is also related to genes. A new study published by thejournal Nature Genetics published by University of Oxford scientists confirmedthat there is a direct correlation between an overly active “cellulite andobesity related gene” (FTO) and obesity and overdose. The new study confirmsa 2007 study with conclusive evidence.

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(Fawcett & Barroso, 2010)That is, a geneticvariant of FTO is associated with an increased risk of obesity. The study foundthat 16% of all Europeans who own two FTO variants have an average body weightof 3 kilograms more than the average person without these two gene variants.Scientists use biotechnology to develop experimental mice with extra FTO genes.The results showed that although the nursery mice were healthy, their appetitewas much larger and their body was more obese. They were bigger than theaverage experimental mice. The researchers found that after 20 weeks, thefemale mice with two FTO genes gained 22% more body weight than normal femalemice, whereas the male mice with both FTO genes gained 10% more body weightthan the other male mice. Researchers believe there is such a link betweenhuman obesity and the FTO gene. (Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France, 2007).

Obesity has at leastthe following “disadvantages.” First, causing bulky physicalactivity, inconvenient activities and psychological barriers; second,increasing spending on basic necessities and expenses; and third, bringingabout fatal diseases and even premature death. Among them, the most obesityhazards can lead to a series of serious complications, such as hypertension,diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, cancer, these diseases are themain killer of human health. In general, obesity itself is not fatal, but thecomplications of obesity, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and highblood pressure, actually reduce the longevity. (GA, 1996)Obesity is also a signmutations or chromosomal abnormalities caused by several genetic syndromes,such as Prader-Willi and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Prader-Willi syndrome(PWS) is caused by a chromosomal abnormality in the 15q11-q12 chromosomalregion. Characterizedby central nervous system dysfunction caused by excessive appetite caused byearly onset of obesity. Bardet-Biedl’s syndrome (BBS) is a hereditarydisorder characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance that is highlyheterogeneous.

The patient may have obesity, polydactyly, retinal atrophy,gonadal hypoplasia, kidney malformations and learning difficulties after birth.Inthese syndromes, obesity is often accompanied by mental retardation, genitalabnormalities or other problems. (U,S.

National Library of Medicine, 2018)The impact of genetic factorson obesity is multifaceted, mainly in the following points: 1. Genetic factorsaffect the body mass index, subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral adiposetissue, and the impact on visceral fat is particularly significant. 2. Geneticsnot only affects the degree of obesity, but also the type of fat distribution.3. Reactivity after overfeeding, ie, the sensitivity of weight gain afteroverfeeding, is genetically determined.

4. Genetically affect the individual’sbasal metabolic rate, the thermal effect of food and the thermal effect ofexercise, that is, the expenditure of energy is affected by genetic factors,and the difference in energy expenditure among individuals can reach more than40%. 5. People’s intake of protein, carbohydrates and fat ratio may be affectedby the genetic. 6.

How much physical activity is also significantly affected bythe genetic. (Walley, Blakemore, & Froguel, 2006)Sowhen you feel obese, you may want to go to the hospital to get a fat gene test.However, do not be afraid whenyou find yourself having obesity genes. Healthy environments and lifestyles cancounteract gene-related risks. First, Eating habits. Studies have shown thatexcluding gene influence, obese children’s family eating habits as their BMIindex increased the most important reason. In the case of heroin hereditaryobesity caused by obesity in her parents, she is also greatly affected by pooreating habits.

Visible, a good diet, not only to change individuals, but alsorejuvenate the entire family. The things you eat determine your bodycomposition in a sense, so stay away from obesity and start with your mouth. (Department of Clinical Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gda?sk, 2013)Second, Exercisehabits. Every person’s daily life will consume a certain number of calories,your energy metabolism level in addition to heredity, more depends on yourphysical activity, choose to walk or ride, choose outdoor fitness orhouse-chase, choose after-meal walk or sit play mobile phone. Your every choiceis to form the future of the body bit by bit, before choosing to tell yourselfthat your body by your own grasp.

Over the past few decades, theglobal increase in the prevalence of obesity has been paralleling the trendtoward shorter sleep times in adults and children. A study by StanfordUniversity in the United States found that people who sleep less than or equalto 4.5 hours have a higher association with obesity than those who sleep for 6to 8 hours. A Spanish study also pointed out that people who sleep less than orequal to 5 hours have a 1.33-fold risk of developing obesity less than 7 hoursof sleep. So, get up early and get up early can also be used as a secret tolose weight, give up before bedtime meaningless playing mobile phones andgames, give yourself a chance to slim down. (Beccuti & Pannain, 2013)      Bibliography Beccuti, G., & Pannain, S.

(2013, April 22). Sleep and obesity. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from US National Library of Medicine : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632337/ Department of Clinical Experimental Endocrinology, Medical University of Gda?sk.

(2013, March 19). Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from US National Library of Medicine: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25577898 Fawcett, K.

A., & Barroso, I. (2010, June 26). The genetics of obesity: FTO leads the way. Retrieved January 2, 2018, from US National Library of Medicine : https://www.ncbi.nlm.

nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2906751/ GA, B. (1996, December 25).

Health hazards of obesity. Retrieved January 2, 2018, from National Center for Biotechnology Information: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8977052 Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. (2018, January 2).

Overweight and Obesity Viz. Retrieved January 2, 2018, from Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation: http://www.healthdata.org/data-visualization/overweight-and-obesity-viz Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France. (2007, May 13). Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity.

Retrieved January 2, 2018, from National Center for Biotechnology Information: https://www.ncbi.nlm.

nih.gov/pubmed/17496892?dopt=Citation National heart ,lung,and boold institute. (2018, January 2). Calculate Your Body Mass Index.

Retrieved January 4, 2018, from National heart ,lung,and boold institute: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.

htm U,S.National Library of Medicine. (2018, January 1). Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Retrieved January 2, 2018, from U,S.National Library of Medicine: https://ghr.

nlm.nih.gov/condition/bardet-biedl-syndrome Walley, A. J., Blakemore, A. I., & Froguel, P.

(2006, October 15). Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from Oxford academic: https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/15/suppl_2/R124/626082     

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