Multiple intelligence theory haswitnessed a great amount of attention from EFL/ESL researchers who believedthat MI would allow practitioners to integrate individual differences of learnersinto language pedagogy. Multiple intelligence preferences are mostly determinedby self-reporting inventories developed by such researchers as Teele (2000),Armstrong (1999), and Silver, Strong and Perini (2000). Even though, Gardner(1993) put emphasis on the importance of assessing each Intelligence with thematerial specific to each intelligence type.
Such assessment demand complextools and longitudinal research designs. Since the feasibility could not bemeeting, questionnaires assessing multiple intelligence profiles are frequentlyused by researchers (McMahon, Rose, & Parks, 2004). Loori (2005)administered TIMI inventory to ESL learners in the United States to identifythe multiple intelligences profiles of male and female students.
The resultsrevealed that there were significant differences between males and females inrelation to their preferences of intelligences. Male students revealed a stronglogical-mathematical intelligence while the female students were in favor ofintrapersonal intelligence. Interpersonal, logical-mathematical, and linguisticintelligences were found to be the dominant preferences among students. Other studies made anattempt to investigate the relationship between intelligence and different aspects of language learning .Wesche, Edwards and Wells (1982) andSkehan (1991) investigated the relationship between intelligence and secondaptitude . They revealed that intelligence and aptitude were associated.
Languageaptitude involved certain components of intelligence which were related tolearning contexts (Skehan, 1991). Studies on multiple intelligences in secondlanguage acquisition are mostly on the application of theories to teaching althoughGardner did not suggest any application ofhis theory to foreign language teaching. Christison and Kennedy (1999) shedlight on the implementation of MI theory in ESL/EFL pedagogy showing aninteresting results in students’learning. Applications of MI theory to second language learning were probed byHaley in a quasi-experimental research (2004). Applying multiple intelligencetheory(MIT) involved instructional strategies, curriculum as well as development,and assessment. Haley gathered both qualitative and quantitative data fromdifferent schools in six countries . 650 student’s ingrates K-12 and 23 Englishas Second Language (ESL) and foreign language teachers took part in the study.
the participants achievements before and after multiple intelligence (MI )applicationwere compared .The findings showed that student achievement was enhanced afterMI application. Haley (2004) concluded that application of MI theory to secondlanguage and foreign language learning has a positive influence on bothstudents and teachers. In a similar vein, Kornhaber(2004) carried out a study. He found that Two out of four areas involvingcurriculum, assessment, school structure, and pedagogy have shown a progress.Kornhaber (2004) also stated that The Project on Schools Using MI Theory(SUMIT), which took 3,5 years and involved about 41 schools that had beenimplementing MI theory for more than 3 years.
A detailed report on practices inclassrooms and frameworks in schools was provided by SUMIT. The majority ofstudents’ test scores, behaviors, parental involvement, and success of studentswith learning disabilities improved .Eisner (2004) examined whether MI theorycorresponds to current educational policies. Focusing mainly on educationpolicies in American schools, current policies required uniformity in bothcurriculum and assessment .
yet, she claimed that current policies do not valueindividual differences and their uniqueness and they do assist littleprediction in real life performance. By examining students performances indifferent areas and valuing their abilities, a curriculum that is based on MItheory can be established. Thus, learning can be enhanced (Eisner, 2004).