Prophets: In this stage the chromatin converges to create rod shaped chromosomes. The nucleus and nucleolus cannot be seen anymore . 3 3. Metaphors: Here the most noticeable change is that the chromosomes converge into the middle of the cell, forming the spindle apparatus-3 The spindle fibers connect and attach at the very middle part of the chromosomes where they connect to each other; this spot is called the controvert. 3 4. Anaphora: In this stage the chromosomes start to separate. They separate from the controvert, and they begin to move away trot one another. Now there are vivo separate sets of chromatin, 3 S, Telephone: Here two separate clusters of chromatin form on either opposite poles tot the cell. Also here is where we can see the beginning of two separate nuclei form. 3 Here it is apparent by my observations that this will be the last stage before the cells split, because the chromatin are completely separated now on opposite ends of the cell. 6. Daughter Cells: Now we can see that there are two completely separated cells. They have their own independent set of organelles from the original “parent” cell they came from. The cells are smaller than the original cell, about half the size of it. 3 PART 8: Differences between Plant and Animal cells. The difference between plant and animal cells during mitosis is actually not hat extensive, there are only a couple areas where the process differs. First and foremost in animal cells nuclear division happens everywhere, all the time. 5 In plants it happens only in special designated areas called merits. Animal cells contain controller, which plant cells do not. The main difference observed between the two comes in the telephone stage before the cells split. S Here, in animal cells a cleavage furrow forms where the cell splits, whereas with plants through the process of cytokines (which is the name for the actual splitting of cells in mitosis) the cell wall of the parent cell is extended to both new daughter ells. 5 This process has to be different because animal cells do not have a cell wall, but plant cells do. 5 PART C: List the Functions of Mitosis and Meiosis. Functions of Mitosis l.
Tissue Growth 2. Regeneration 3. Asexual Reproductions Afflictions of Meiosis I _ Reproductions 2. Increases genetic variability PART D: Questions from the Lab Manual. 1. “Is there a correlation between the number of chromosomes and the size of the organism? ” NO, while the amount Of chromosomes can differ from organism to organism, there is no direct correlation between the organism’s size and the amount Of chromosomes they contain . 2. “Are all chromosomes the same NO, certain chromosomes are but not all chromosomes are the same size. 3. N/hat can you infer as to the amount of genetic material per chromosome in the organisms listed in Chart 1 at the end of this exercise? ” To put it simply, there is really no correlation between amount of chromosomes and size or complexity of the organism-6 Humans have fewer chromosomes than a spider, even though we are more complex-6 Another example is that a Locust has more chromosomes than a bullfrog which is much larger-6 So there is no correlation present in the data displayed. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING” SECTION 1. When a primary octet is observed, is tit haploid or diploid? Why? ” The primary octet would be a diploid in this case, this is because it a cell that consists and possesses two separate sets of chromosomes. 2 2. “At which stage does crossing over occur It happens during meiosis while in the Prophets stage. 1 3. ‘What is the evolutionary significance of this? ” This is crucial because it helps create more “genetic variability’, meaning that the organism won’t be exactly the same as the parent organism because their genetic identity changed during the crossing over process.
There are many reasons this is important, but the main reason is because over time it gives organism more variety, and vita that a better chance to change and adapt to the ever changing scenarios and environments it interacts With around it_4 Without crossing over, there would be extremely limited amounts of evolution, and in turn species would not be able to have survived and adapted so well over history.