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Micronized quick lime

CaO after grinding and
screening is called micronized quicklime.

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List of tests on lime

Test on fresh mortar

Consistency test by flow table

Bulk density test

Tests on hardened mortar


            By UTM

            Pull off adhesion test



water absorption test

vapor permeability test

modulus of elasticity By resonant frequency

variation due to shrinkage measured with vernier calipers

intrusion porosimetry

the extent of carbonation

            X-Ray Flourescence spectroscopy- XRF

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ Thermal
diffraction analysis (DTA)

            X-ray diffraction (XRD)

Phenolphthalein indication test

Test for water absorption

Capillary water absorption test

In this test the
hardened mortar is kept in contact with water 5mm from base in accordance with
EN 1015-18: 2002 and then graph is plotted b/w mass of water absorbed by
specimen and contact area of specimen with water. The specimen is kept in
contact with water until the saturation i.e the difference b/w to weights is
less than 1%. 11

Bond strength test

Tensile bond test

Mortar of thickness
20±2mm was applied b/w two tile slab. The procedure is to apply the mortar on
one tile slab then the other tile slab is pressed against the mortar with thumb
and rubber mallet as the traditional procedure adopted now a days in such kind
of works. The tile slab is pressed with uniform pressure against mortar. Then
after curing two metal pieces are glued with both tiles and now can be fixed in
UTM to apply the tensile load of 5N/s until rupture. The rupture may be
classified as the cohesive or adhesive. The rupture will be adhesive if the
failure is in tile mortar interface and will cohesive if failure is in core of
mortar. 11

Measuring the extent of carbonation

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/ Thermal
diffraction analysis

For it the powdered
sample <106µm is dried at 60oC and analyzed in thermal analysis equipment (TGA-DTA) in an argon atmosphere 3L/h. The heating rate is 10 oC/min from room temperature to 1000 oC. With this temperature change there is physical and chemical change in test specimen. Each constituent has its own temperature range of decomposition and a specific mass loss such as de-hydroxylation of portlandite occure in the temperature range of 350-550 oC and calcite decompose in the temperature range of 550-850 oC. By the results obtain from TGA-DTA we can have knowledge of extent of carbonation.13 X-ray diffraction (XRD) Extent of carbonation can also be measured by using XRD apparatus. Lime in powder form is placed in XRD apparatus and after analysis peaks for various compounds are obtained giving information about its composition.13 Phenolphthalein indication test  Fractured surface of lime is sprayed with 1% Phenolphthalein solution to give the indication of carbonation as the result of curing. Absence of pink color on surface indicates the specimen is fully carbonated. 14 Phenolphthalein indication analysis is also used to measure the depth of carbonation.17 Tests giving the mineralogical information Scanning electron microscopic analysis (SEM) By using scanning electron microscope mineralogical and microstructure data can be achieve and we can also check the correspondence of these results with the results of other mechanical tests. 15 Additives for lime Additives for lime are of two types: 1.      Minerals 2.      Organic additives Minerals may be pozzolans, microsilica, fillers etc and organic additives includes water retention, water repellant plastifier agents, organic fiber etc. 12 By these additives characteristics of lime may be changed and as the result the performance and durability can be improved. Pozzolanic ensure hydraulicity and increase the resistance of water action. Nanosilica and zeolites helps to gain strength. Fibers help to reduce the risk of cracking. Plastiszers reduces the need of water. Some water repellant additives may improve not only the water absorption characteristics but also the freeze and thaw. In some cases it also improves the mechanical properties. Water retention additives control the risk of desiccation.12 Additions of organics in lime matrix enhance its strength due to reaction b/w polymer from natural organic and portlandite of lime that forms calcium oxalate monohydrate. Formation of this new complex compound enhance the strength of mortar by increasing the binding strength b/w consecutive lime partials and reduces stress concentration during loading. 18 References 11Air lime mortars for conservation of historic tiles: Bond strength of new mortar to old tiles Sandro Botas, Rosario Veiga, Ana Velosa (14 April 2017) 12 Air lime mortars: What else do we need to know to apply them in conservation and rehabilitation interventions? A review Rosario Veiga (21 September 2017) 13Traditional methods of mortar preparation: the hot lime mix method Goreti Margalha, Rosario Veiga, Antonio Santos Silva, Jorge de Brito (30 May 2011) 14 Deterioration of natural hydraulic lime mortars, II: Effect of chemically accelerated leaching on physical and chemical properties of carbonated materials Phillip F.G.Banfill, Ewan M.Szadurki, Alan M.Forster(23 February 2016) 15Lime-Based injection grouts with reduced water content an assecment of the effects of the water reducing agents ovalbumin and ethanol on the mineralogical evolution ans properties of grouts Chiara Pasian, Michele Seccco, Francesca Pique, Gilberto Artioli, Stephen (xxxx) 16 A multiscale model for pervious lime-cement mortar with perlite and cellulose fibers Palomar, G. Barluenga (10 November 2017) 17 Experimental analysis of analysis of carbonation and humidity diffusion processes in aerial lime mortar Mateus A.Oliveira, Miguel Azenha, Paulo B. Lourenco, Anna Meneghini, Erika T. Guimaraes, Fernando Castro. Delfim Soares (10May 2017) 18 Experimental investigation on physical and mechanical properties of lime mortar: Effect of organic addition Selvaraj Thirumalini, Ramadoss Ravi, Murugan Rajesh (xxx)    

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