1.! ntroduction. Before I start with my presentation, I would like to invite you all to enjoy a video clip. Video Clip (With this video clip I tried to bring before you a boy, who have been suffering from mental disorder or illness. But for your kind information, this boy was not by born mentally disable. In the next clip I would like to show you, the cause or contributing factor which led this boy to suffer from such illness. Video Clip.
After viewing the 2nd clip, we can easily conclude that a criminal act have been committed in-front of that little boy, the shock of which could not be absorbed by his little brain and let him to suffer from such disorder. (Here I would like to add that the victim in the movie was the elder brother of that little boy). The intention of showing these clips are, to bring into your notice that not only the biological causes there are many social factors which are equally responsible for our mental illness -and that’s why I am standing this morning in-front of you to talk about -ie MENTAL HEAL TH (1sT Slide)
Air Officer Commanding, Ladies and gentlemen present, Assalamu Alaikum and a very Good Morning to all of you. Before I go into the details of my presentation, let me first define what is health & what is mental health. (Slide) 2. Definition Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of diseases or infirmity. Therefore, a sound mind in a sound body has been recognized as a social ideal for many centuries. Keeping the definition of health, in mind, let us have a look onto the definition of mental health.
In 1950, a world health org Expert committee on mental health reviewed the various definitions of mental health and observed Mental health, is influenced by both biological and social factors. As per that committee (Slide) it is the . capacity in an individual to form harmonious relations with others and to participate in, or contribute constructively to changes in his social and physical environment. 3. Aim Keeping the definition in mind the aim of my today’s presentation is (Slide) to know the biological and social factors contributing to mental illness, so that we can guard against the social factors.
( Just to add a little to the aim, I will not go deep into the details of biological factors because that’s the matter of the professionals ie. Psychiatrist) To achieve my aim, I would like to take this opportunity for next 40 min in a sequence shown in the screen. (Slide) 4. Sequence of Presentation Historical Background of Psychiatry Characteristics of a Mentally healthy person Warning signals of poor mental health Types of mental illness Causes of mental ill health Crucial points in the life cycle of human being Prevention of mental illness Mental health services.
Psychiatric Treatment received by BAF Personnel And at the end of my presentation I will definitely be here to answer your questions if you have any. (SLIDE) 5. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PSYCHIATRY To talk on to the historical background of psychiatry, at the moment I remember the situation in our country. Still many people in our country while handling with such kind of patients believes that it’s the effect of ——–. Before the psychiatry began any scientific advancement, it was the actual picture all over the world. For long the mentally ill were considered to be possessed by devils
Patients were locked up in tall jail like building far removed from the centers of population, alienated from the rest of society. During the 20th Century, psychiatry began to make scientific advancement. The publications of Sigmond Freud led to new concepts in the treatment of the mentally ill. The 1930’s and early 1940’s saw the introduction of two empirical treatments -insulin coma therapy and electric shock treatment. Then came the tranquilisers, they . made it possible to admit and treat all types of mental illness in the general hospital.
By the grace of that the current trend is complete integration of the mentally ill patient into the normal pattern of medical care. 6. Characteristics of a mentally healthy person So it is no more required to send the mentally ill’s to the separate hospital. As the science ; psychiatry develops it also says that Mental Health is not mere absence of mental illness. A mentally healthy person has three main characteristics: (Slide) a. He feels comfortable about himself, that is, he feels reasonably secure and adequate. He neither underestimates nor overestimates his own ability.
He accepts his shortcomings. He has self-respect. (Slide) b. The mentally healthy person feels right towards others. This means that he is able to be interested in others and to love them. He has friendship that are satisfying. He is able to feel a part of group without being submerged by it. He is able to like and trust others. He takes responsibility for his neighbours and his fellow-men. (Slide) c. The mentally healthy person is able to meet the demands of life. He does something about the problems as they arise. He is able to think for himself and to take his own decisions.
He sets reasonable goals for himself. He shoulders his daily responsibilities. He is not blowed over by his own emotions of fear, anger love or guilt. (Slide) a. 7. Warning Signals of poor Mental Health. So after knowing the characteristics I am sure, all of you are now trying to judge your own state. To further help you out Dr. William C. Menniger, President of the Menniger Foundation. Topeka Kansas, United States of America drew up the following questions by which one can take his own mental health pulse. Therefore read the following questions very carefully and judge your own metal health pulse (Slide).
b. Are you always worrying? (Slide) b. Are you unable to concentrate because of unrecongnised reasons? (Slide) c. Are you continually unhappy without justified cause? (Slide) d. Do you lose your temper easily and often? (Slide) e. Are you troubled by regular insomnia? (Slide) f. Do you have wide fluctuations, in your moods which incapacitate you? (Slide) g. Do you continually dislike to be with people? (Slide) h. Are you upset if the routine of your life is disturbed? (Slide) j. Do your children consistently ” get on your nerves? (Slide) k. Are your “browned off” and constantly bitter?
(Slide) I. Are you afraid without real cause? (Slide) m. Are you always right and the other person always wrong? (Slide) n. Do you have ;numerous aches ;and pains for which no doctor can find a physical cause? The conditions chartered in these questions are the major warning signals of poor mental health ;in one degree or another. According to Dr. Menniger, help of doctor is necessary if the answer to any of these questions are definitely “Yes”. 8. Types of Mental Illness I am sure, answering those questions, by now, all of you have got your own mental health state.
Definitely you all are mentally healthy & that’s why this morning you are sitting in this beautiful auditorium. As a matter of fact, Mental illness is a vast subject & broad in its limits. To make it easy for doctors iro gravity of illness they are divided into two main groups. Major illnesses and minor illnesses. The major illnesses are called psychoses. They are again sub-divided into two: (Slide) a. SCHIZOPHRENIA It’s a major psychiatric disorder, in which the patient lives in a dream world of his own. (Slide) b.
DEPRESSION It means the symptoms of feeling sad (low mood, lack of enjoyment,) (Slide) Next comes the minor illness. It is sub-divided into three: (Slide) a. NEUROTIC AND STRESS-RELATED: Anxiety disorder, , acute and post traumatic disorder. (Slide) b. BEHAVIOURAL SYNDROMES : Eating disorder, Sleep disorder, Sexual dysfunction. c. PERSONALITY DISORDERS : 9. Causes of Mental illhealth. As we know what is mental health & the types, its also required to know the causes of mental ill health, so as to safeguard against it. Mental illness like physical illness is due to multiple causes.
There are many unknown factors of agent, host and environment in the natural histories of mental disorders. Among the known factors are the following ( slide) a. ORGANIC CONDITIONS: Mental illnesses may have their origin in organic conditions such as neurological diseases, and chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy etc. (Slide) b. HEREDITY: Heredity may be an important factor in some cases. For example, the child of two schizophrenic parents is 40 times more likely to develop schizophrenia than is the child of non-schizophrenic parents. (Slide) c.
SOCIAL PATHOLOGICAL CAUSES: To produce any disease, there must be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The social and environmental factors associated with mental ill health comprise the following: (Slide) Worries, anxieties, emotional stress, tention, frustrations, unhappy marriages, broken homes, poverty, industrialisation, urbanisation, changing family structure, population mobility, economic insecurity, rejection, neglect and the like. The social environment not only determines the individual’s attitudes but also provides the “framework” within which mental health is formulated.
(Slide) Beside the social factors environmental factors other t(Slide) n psychosocial ones are also capable of producing abnormal human behaviour . Those are: (Slide) (1) Toxic substances Carbon disulfide, mercury, manganese, tin, lead compounds, etc. (Slide) (2) Nutritional factor Deficiency of thiamine, pyridoxine. (Slide) (3) Minerals Deficiency of iodine. (Slide) (4) Infective agents Infectious disease (eg measles, rubella) during the prenatal, perinatal and post-natal periods of life may have adverse effects on the brain’s development and the integration of mental functions. (Slide)
(5) Traumatic factors Road and occupational accidents. (Slide) (6) Radiation Nervous system is most sensitive to radiation during the period of neural development. (Slide) 10. Crucial Points in the Life Cycle of Human Beings So we have seen how the society and environment is contributing to the development of mental disorder. But there are certain key stages in the life cycle of human being when those can have maximum effect. Stages are : (Slide) a. Prenatal Period: Pregnancy is a stressful period for some women. They need help not only for their physical but also emotional needs. (Slide) b.
First 5 years of life: The roots of mental health are in early childhood. The infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother and father. It is this relationship underlies the development of mental health. It follows that broken homes are likely to produce behaviour dis-orders in children and this has been confirmed by several studies. (Slide) c. School Child: Everything that happens in the school affects the mental health of the child. The programmes and practices of the school may satisfy or frustrate the emotional needs of the child.
Children who have emotional problems may need child guidance clinic psychiatric services. From the standpoint of the child’s mental health and his effectiveness in learning, proper teacher-pupil relationship and climate of the class room are very important. (Slide) d. Adolescence: The transition from adolescence to manhood is often a stormy one and fraught with dangers to mental health, manifested in the form of mental illhealth among the young and juvenile delinquency in particular. The basic needs of the adolescents are: (1)The need to be needed by others.
(2)The need for increasing independence. (3)The need to achieve adequate adjustment to the opposite sex . (4) The need to rethink the cherished beliefs of one’s elders. The failure to recognise and understand these basic needs may prevent sound mental development. (Slide) e. Old-age: The mental health problems of the aged have received considerable attention in recent times in ;the developed countries. The causes of mental illness in the aged are organic conditions of the brain, economic insecurity, lack of a home, poor status and insecurity. (Slide) 11.
Preventive Aspects After having so elaborate discussion on the subject naturally question comes, how to prevent it. Three levels of prevention have been described. Those are : (Slide) a. Primary: Primary prevention operates on a community basis. This consists of “improving the social environment”, and promotion of the social, emotional and physical well-being of all people. It includes working for better living conditions and improved health and welfare resources in the community. (Slide) b. Secondary: This consists of early diagnosis of mental illness.
and of social and emotional disturbances through screening programmes in schools, universities, industry centres, etc. and provision of treatment facilities and effective community resources in this regard, II family- health services have much role to play. The agencies chief responsibility is to provide a counselling service and help to families with marital conflict, disturbed parent-child relationships and strained interpersonal relationships. Family counselling is one method of treatment intervention for helping the mentally ill. Family counsellers make an accurate psychosocial diagnosis. (Slide)
c. Tertiary: Tertiary prevention seeks to reduce the duration of mental illnesses and thus reduce the stresses they create for the family and the community. In short the goal at this level is to prevent further break-down and disruption. (Slide) 12. Mental Health Services Besides all those prevention, there is something called mental health service. (Slide) Mental health services in a community are concerned not only with early diagnosis and treatment, but also with the preservation and promotion of good mental health and prevention of mental illness. The mental health services comprise : (Slide)
a. Early diagnosis and treatment. (Slide) b. Rehabilitation. (Slide) c. Group and individual psychotherapy. (Slide) d. Mental health education. (Slide) e. Use of modern psychoactive drugs. (Slide) f. After-care services. (Slide) g. After-care services. (Slide) 13. Psychiatric treatment received by BAF personnel So, that was the all about mental health itself. Now why not have a look into our so called healthy Air Force community. If I ask you are we really healthy (as far as mental health is concerned) ? Many of you will be confused.
Let us have a look into the next (Slide) JAN- , JUL- FEB- AUG-MAR- SEP- APR- OCT – MAY- NOV- JUN- . DEC- TOTAL IN 2001 -636 So far I gave you the statistics of Air Force only . But think about this country and its unfortunate citizens . Living with all those possible criteria’s, which may lead someone to suffer from mental disorder – what might be the number of patients. The number is definitely quite high – that’s why you open up a news paper in the morning & start your day with the headlines (Slide) ——– Its not only Bappi, Shihab or Trisha , It has become a regular phenomena . Again another statistics can give you a better picture (Slide) .
To do this kind of crime you really need to be a psychic. (Slide) 14. Conclusion. Gentleman I am at fag end of my today’s presentation. Within this limited scope I tried to define mental health, it’s contributory factors, types of mental illness and the preventive measures. At ment dstress is a major issue of our time affecting young and old, rich and poor. It can shatter lives, cause family and relationship breakdowns and it can happen with you, me and anyone. So let us all guard against any such disaster at-Ieast in our society. (Slide) 15. Q & A (Slide)