Did you know that mechanical solidarity is common among pre-industrial societies? In this lesson, we’ll learn all about mechanical solidarity, how it differs from organic solidarity, and more.
Definition of Mechanical Solidarity
Mechanical solidarity is when a society is maintained by the similarities of its members. But, what does this really mean? Let’s look at an example.Ari was born and raised in a small village in Indonesia. Ari, like everyone else in her community, grows and maintains crops. Each member of the community works for 10 hours each day.
The members of the village are all alike in many ways. For example, they all hold the same values and beliefs, all of their children attend the same school, eat the same food, and they all follow the village’s customs. Ari’s community is an example of mechanical solidarity.
Overview of Societal Solidarity
Sociologist Émile Durkheim wrote The Division of Labor in 1893. In this work, Durkheim identifies two types of societal solidarity. Durkheim uses the term solidarity to refer to the things that keep a society together. Organic solidarity refers to solidarity that results from the division of labor, which makes the members of the society highly dependent upon each other.
In contrast, there is no division of labor in mechanical solidarity, nor are society’s members highly dependent upon each other.All of the individuals in a society that is maintained due to mechanical solidarity share similar characteristics. They perform the same jobs, so one worker could easily take the place of another.
Members of mechanical solidarity society have the same core beliefs, educational background and world views, and they live similar lives. It is because of their similarities that the society is able to stay together. Mechanical solidarity is prevalent in pre-industrial societies.
The traditional hunter-gather society is a case of mechanical solidarity. The members of the hunter-gather societies were all foragers that lived in small communities, had similar beliefs, education, and customs.The Inuit, a group of indigenous people who live in the Arctic regions, are also an example of mechanical solidarity. Like hunter-gatherers, the Inuit also have similar world views, education, traditions, etc.
Mechanical vs. Organic Solidarity
We previously stated that organic solidarity has a society where people are interdependent due to the division of labor, whereas people are not dependent upon each other in a mechanical society.
But what are some other differences between mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity?Organic solidarity consists of people who perform specialized tasks and functions, whereas mechanical solidarity requires people to perform the same tasks, responsibilities, and functions. Mechanical solidarity is seen most commonly in smaller societies, whereas organic solidarity is seen among larger, more complex societies. Likewise, you are more likely to find mechanical solidarity in pre-industrial societies. Organic solidarity is more common in industrial and post-industrial societies. Your kinship and family ties determine your place in society held together by mechanical solidarity; however, your job or function determines your place in society held together by organic solidarity.
Solidarity as used by sociologist ;mile Durkheim refers to how societies are held together. Mechanical solidarity relies on the similarities of its members and is prevalent in pre-industrial societies.
Members of a mechanical solidarity society have the same core beliefs, educational background and world views, and they live similar lives. An example of a mechanical society is the Inuit people of the Arctic. Organic solidarity, in contrast, relies on the division of labor. And now you know all about mechanical solidarity.