Many languages nowadays are facing extinction because of the fact that fewer and fewerare speaking them. Many languages have been depleted due to economic and politicalreasons. In addition many languages are also threatened because of the fact that theyremain unwritten and undocumented. The threat of disappearance of more languages posesthe need to protect them and provide motivation to encourage language nests so as toensure their preservation. If more languages disappear, then humanity would lose not only acultural wealth but also important ancestral knowledge of the world and the universe.According to the UNESCO Atlas of world's languages in danger, Brazil lists at least 190languages likely to disappear.The territory of Brazil embraces most of the lowlands of South America including Amazoniawhich is the place where native people called Indians or Amerindians spoke a large numberof languages.
Since there has been an enormous reduction in the number of indigenouspeoples many languages have undergone the same condition. Through the last five centuriesthe area seems to have been emptied out of Indians thus almost eliminating theirpopulation. The dominant language spoken in the area was Lingua Geral with a fewvariations depending on the location of each population. This language was spoken quitedifferently by different peoples. The Southern Lingua Geral became extinct in the 18thcentury while the Northern Lingua Geral is still spoken today, however it is losing ground toPortuguese.
There are only 3000 speakers of the population today. Furthermore 75% of thelanguages spoken 500 years ago have disappeared. The indigenous languages spoken todayin Brazil range from 160 to180 but their future can not be estimated. The most popularlanguage is Tikuna which has about 18000 speakers.
Considering the fact that economicfactors, different liguistic and sociological phenomena affect the preservation of languages itis highly likely that a given language may have varying degrees of vitality in differentcountries. Given that Brazil is a country which has been financially depleted and hasundergone multiple strikes by severe natural disasters it can be estimated that thepreservation of languages is not a matter of utmost importance. A large part of the fundingthat the country receives is allocated to the improvement of the living conditions and thefight against poverty. However the preservation of languages is of equal importance to thepreservation of the environment and the citizens' well – being.From a scientific point of view it is necessary that languages should be preserved becausethis helps researchers explore the wealth of the world's languages and delve into the cultureand the reasoning of each civilization. The more languages are researched the more insightsscientists can gain on linguistics. Therefore, the preservation of the Brazilian languages isimportant for the linguistic science. Additionally it plays an instrumental role in thedevelopment, maintenance and transmission of culture.
Language is the meansanthropologists have for approaching many basic aspects of culture. Language is the mirrorof a society and depicts its financial literary and spiritual pursuits through the centuries. Eachlanguage is not only a means of communication but also a means which allows the world tofamiliarize with a specific civilization and culture. Therefore research on the indigenouslanguage should be enhanced and promoted because of the fact that they are progressingvery slowly. The creation of a center for the study of Amazonian languages should beestablished and more centers need to be created to establish the research and study ofindigenous languages which are likely to become extinct. Language revival movements toenhance regional languages should be implemented so as to ensure that these languageswill not become endangered.
The creation of language nests, where the study andinstruction of these languages will take place, can ensure that the languages will be spokenby future generations so as to safeguard the plethora of cultural and sociolinguistic elementsa language contains.