Literature reviews shows that effectively pain management depends on having the broad knowledge from the assessment up to management. Combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies brings better pain relief. Many literatures are focusing more on pharmacological management but some other literatures have focused on the positive results of nonpharmacological methods in pain relief but few of them have not demonstrated the nurse’s knowledge and practices regarding the use of nonpharmacological methods in pain relief. The following are the literatures used: Craig, J.A.
(2014) a quantitative design was used to examine differences in knowledge of pain assessment and pharmacologic pain management strategies among registered nurses from a large academic medical center. Subjects were selected using type of nursing unit in which they perform their daily responsibilities and a convenience sampling plan. The main purpose of this study was to investigate nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management.
The results show the knowledge deficits and poor attitudes which will results to poor pain management. Also Craig identified the role of nonpharmacological interventions in pain relief and he said that researches have to be done to assess the nurse’s knowledge on nonpharmacological pain therapy. In this article, the knowledge determines much how we will manage pain by giving patients other options to manage pain (Craig 2014).
U. Odile (2017) conducted a study titled assessment knowledge and practice of post-operative pain management among nurses working in surgical ward in Rwandan referral hospital. The results of this research were that nurse’s level of knowledge and practice on post-operative management was predominantly low among nurses.
Therefore, the need for training these pain management nurses working in the surgical wards. Pain management involves using pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and other approaches therefore knowledge is needed to be assessed (Odile 2017) Elmali and Balci (2017) conducted a research on the role of funny videos in post surgical pain relief as nonpharmacological distraction method and it showed positive effect in relieving pain. According to studies conducted, nurses use non-pharmacological techniques at a low rate and they use analgesics at the doctors’ direction. In this study, distraction is the effective nonpharmacological in pain relief. He says these methods are easy, cost effective and have low side effects and Nurses should use these methods but knowledge among nurses is still low and needs to be assessed (Elmali and Balci 2017). Windartik, E., Yuniarti, E.
V. and Akbar, A. (2017), inthis article the post surgical pain can not be alleviated by anaethestics but by nonpharmacological methods which includes relaxation. Post- surgical pain management, not just an effort to reduce the suffering of the client, but also improve the quality of life. Relaxation techniques makes patients can control themselves when the discomfort or pain, physical stress and emotions on pain (Windartik, Yuniarti, and Akbar 2017).
Therefore for beter pain management a nurse must have knowledge for these techniques and practices them. Adem et al (2017) conducted research to titled ” assessment of health professional towards post-operative pain management in Asella teaching and referal hospital, south east Ethiopia. He says it is very important to assess knowledge level of health professional that helps to establish preventive strategies of post-surgical pain in the local areas (Adem, Obsa, and Worji 2017).
Adequate postoperative pain management can reduce the patients length of hospitalization and decrease postoperative complications. In this study done in Ethiopia it was identified that there is a knowledge gap among health professionals in understanding strategies used in pain management(Adem, Obsa, and Worji 2017)