Leadership,in whichever form it embraces, has as essential purpose to ensure & continuethe school improvement which has to do with the quality of teaching; the mostinfluential factor of students’ achievement.
It is obvious though that thequality & the leadership effectiveness is understood & evaluated incorrespondence with regards to teachers’ motivational & effectiveness( Fullan,2001).According to (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006) one of the main leadership practicehas to do with the teachers’ empowerment which is strongly related to the centralgoal of the school; students’ learning. The development of the employees’performance is considerably vital aim which the leader tries to attain throughsome actions taking into consideration individuals’ beliefs, values,motivations & skills. Structuring a definite vision & giveinstructions, they provide teachers with a strong impetus to develop theirperformance. Setting a common point that clarifies the roles, the objectives& the preferred expectations from the teachers’ act they enhance teachers’efficacy in the classroom. A study conducted by Ross & Gray (2006) concludedthat transformative leadership qualities are essential for school effectiveness.Kochamba & Murray (2008), in their study on critical leadership skillsneeded by principals for the achievement of school effectiveness foundtechnical, human relations, conceptual and transformative leadership skillscritical for the achievement of school effectiveness.
According to Richter, Lewis & Hagar(2012) revealed that transformational, administrative & behavioural managementqualities are important tools needed by principals for achieving schooleffectiveness. The study was hinged on the path-goal theory of leadership byHouse (1971) which postulates that for leaders to be effective, they must havethe skill to clarify the path to successful attainment of goals for followers;they must also, be able to eradicate obstacles on the path to achievement of managerialgoals for the followers. To clarify the path, the principal/headmaster mustknow the processes involved & have the vision on how to achieve the goals.In order to eradicate the obstacles from followers’ path to achieve goals, theprincipal must have the ability to know when & how to eliminate theseobstacles. Hoppock (1935) was among the first to reportjob satisfaction level of teachers concluded that job satisfaction is relatedto mental health. Since then, researchers have shown profound consideration tothe issue & different logical studies have been undertaken. Blum & Naylor,(1968) stated that job satisfaction is regarded as a generally favorable orunfavorable attitude resulting from specific work areas, such as job factorsand individual characteristics. Hoy & Miskel (1987) stated that jobsatisfaction is viewed as a crucial factor as to the general efficiency of anorganization.
The progress towards human relations sheds extra light on the significanceof the morale & development of the work conditions for the employees oforganizations & institutions. Abdualkhaliq (1982) revealed that themajority of the job satisfaction research has been aimed towards lower levelemployees, adding that it is limited with regard to looking at managers,technicians & professionals. Job satisfaction is considered extremely significantissue within the educational context, especially for school head teachers. Frank,(1986) concluded that job satisfaction is mixture of psycho-socio conditions which helps a person in the satisfaction of his job.
Job satisfaction is a multivariate humanattitude defined as employees’ feelings about their jobs in general (Morrison,Jones, & Fuller, (1997). As Thompson etal. (1997) stated that synthesis of research findings regarding jobsatisfaction in educational organizations, job satisfaction has been as thecriterion variable of interest, as one of a collection of criterion variables,or as a predictor variable in regard to another criterion of interest.
According to (Blood, et al. 2002) Job satisfaction is one of the most widely researchedtopics in the areas of organizational behavior and education. Raza, et al. (2015) in their study revealed apositive relationship between four intrinsic facets of job satisfaction that iscreativity, job security, responsibility & achievement with jobsatisfaction. As Tella, Ayeni & Popoola, (2007) found that job satisfactionhas a core relationship with several attitudes about the job characteristic,compensation & benefits, social status social security, promotion,technological challenges & respect. Ali, et al.
(2012) revealed that most of the head teachers at elementarylevel were slightly satisfied with respect to their promotion, formulation,awareness & implementation of education policy & salary packages. Theyalso found that head teachers were satisfied with respect to factors of jobi.e. ability utilization, achievement from job, administrative activities,authority, creativity, independence in administration and teaching, moralvalues and other factors.
Ghazi & Khan (2008) in their findings revealedthat moral values & activity were the two aspects of job for which headteachers showed higher satisfaction while compensation, working conditions,social status, & school practices and policies were the factors to which head teachersshowed low satisfaction. Nguyen et al (2013)revealed a positive relationship between reward & recognition, satisfactionwith supervision & job characteristics. Nationsacross the globe are spending huge amount on education and for improving managementin education. Education can help in increasing the production & it may bealso helpful in staff’s satisfaction even as creating & improving the relationspersonally & finally output & efficiency (Khallili, 2004). Managers orhead teachers play a significant character as they manage the subordinates,make mutual association, and inspire staff. All of these activities are done tomeet the organizational needs and achieve the organizational goals (Alagheband,1992). The aim of management knowledge andall organizational theories is to increase productivity or organizationalperformance. Contingency theory is one of those models used to show theperformance of groups since it is the merely single model by which theperformance or success of group must be measured (Khalili, 1993).
As Teiman (2010)surveyed in Michigan University about defensive organizations, hospitals andgovernmental organizations to find out some set of leadership characteristicsincluding job satisfaction, absenteeism, profitability and efficiency. He foundthat leadership with more effectiveness has a supportive and enforcing behaviorand individual decision-making is common and more acceptable performance aswell. Muller (2008) surveyed effectiveness ofeducation-oriented units in Frankfurt training colleges based on Fiedler Contingencymodel and found effectiveness of task-based leadership is better thanrelationship-based.