Leadership and Management/Managership
“Leadership is the process wherein an individual member of a group or organization influences the interpretation of events, the choice of objectives and strategies, the organization of work activities, the motivation of people to achieve the objectives, the maintenance of cooperative relationships, the development of skills and confidence by members, and the enlistment of support and cooperation of people outside the organisation” Yukl, (2006).
Grint suggests management might focus on solving complex but essentially “tame problems in a linear fashion; applying what worked last time” whereas leadership is essentially about facing “wicked problems that are literally unmanageable” Grint (2005).
Management and leadership is not the same thing. The difference between the two is that managers tend to follow the company policies and guidelines. However, leadership is all about loyalty, all the team members will be more loyal to their leader than their managers. Team improvement, giving credits and leader accepting the blame when things go wrong.
Coaching and mentoring
“Coaching is around specific performance issues or goals. Coaches are subject matter experts, such as learning a new computer program or medical procedure. Most coaching is short term. In mentoring relationships, you’re usually talking about soft issues, people issues, cultural issues… A coach is a person to help you with specific issues or goals. A mentor is a person with whom you cultivate a relationship, based on a mutual exchange of information and perspective” Tyler (2004).
“Mentoring is a role that includes coaching but also embraces broader counselling and support, such as career counselling” Landsberg (1996).
Regardless of whether the relationship is considered formal or casual, the objective of mentoring is to give vocation guidance and also both expert and individual advancement. We characterize a mentoring relationship as encouraging and supporting individuals to “deal with their own particular learning keeping in mind the end goal to expand their export potential, build up their abilities, enhance their performance, and turn into the individual they need to be.” An effective work environment mentoring relationship aids the improvement and future employability of youth; and, accordingly, makes an exceedingly talented and taught workforce.
There are two function types of mentoring and they are psychosocial functions and career functions. Psychosocial functions Role Modelling – Giving junior colleague a pattern of values & behaviour to emulate (most frequent psychosocial function). Acceptance and Confirmation – Providing mutual support and encouragement. Counselling – Helping a junior colleague work out/through personal and work-related problems, promoting gestalt and enhancing self-image. Friendship – engaging in mutually satisfying social interaction. Career functions Sponsorship – actively nominating a junior colleague for promotions and developmental or desirable positions. Exposure/Visibility – pairing junior manager with key seniors/execs who can provide opportunities. Coaching – Providing practical help to accomplish objectives and achieve recognition. Protection – Shielding junior manager or colleague from potentially harmful situations or ‘political’ seniors. Challenging Assignments – Helping a junior manager or colleague develop competencies via assignments and feedback.
Overall, coaching is a learning procedure and mentoring is a growing relationship.
Skill/ Will matrix:
High will – Guide – Delegate (aim of coaching)
Low – Direct – Excite
Low Skill High Skill
Skill will depend on experience, training, understanding, role perception. Will will depend on the desire to achieve, incentives security, confidence.
Human Resource Development (HRD), Human and Social Capital
Human capital- Learning, training and relevant development of the workforce. There are three types of human capital they are General human capital- human capital/ individuals that can be transferred to any job/role. Flexible/adaptable, communication, etc. (thus critical). Industry-specific human capital – human capital that can be transferred to an industry sector (engineers, doctors etc.). Organisation-specific human capital – human capital individuals with skills/knowledge only relevant to that organisation (not transferable).
Rees and French (2016) define Human Capital Management (HCM) as the collective knowledge, skills, abilities and capacity to develop and innovate through company employees.
Social capital- High trust relationships between employees and employers, social relationships (psychological contract). It could include social advantages, reputation, “connections”, mentoring, and other forms of support or influence that are associated with human relationships.
There are many organisations that focus more on learning, training and progress in order to ‘provide the knowledge, skills and behaviours required for sustainable success’ CIPD (2015).
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development (HRD) strategy exists to remedy the skills deficiencies vis-à-vis the business strategy Luoma (2000). HRD is a Resource- based view (RBV) of an organisation. Employee improvement is viewed as a source of competitive advantage.
“We live in the information age, where the ability to communicate is essential to success in most professions. This is particularly so for Learning and Development, which is almost wholly about communicating with our colleagues, learners, customers, networks and stakeholders” (Beevers and Rea, 2016).