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Three drops of iron (Ill) nitrate were added to different spots in the Petri dish, ND the resulting solution was swirled until the color was consistent. Approximately h pea-sized sample of potassium technocratic crystals was added to one spot. After 30 seconds, the solution was mixed. Approximately a h pea-sized sample of potassium nitrate crystals was added to one spot in the Petri dish. After 30 seconds, this solution was again mixed. About a 1/4 pea-sized sample of sodium phosphate monobasic crystals were added to one spot in the Petri dish. After 60 seconds, this solution was mixed.

One drop of iron (Ill) nitrate solution was added to the side of the Petri dish, while a pea-sized amount of potassium technocratic crystals was added to a different spot. After 30 seconds, the solution was swirled to ensure the crystals fully dissolved and this final solution was saved for use in Part B. Part B: Effect of Temperature: The solution saved from Part A was divided evenly into two test tubes labeled ‘A’ and ‘B’. Test tube A was kept as the control. Test tube B was placed into an ice water bath for three to five minutes and then compared to the control.

Test tube B was then placed into a hot water bath for two to three minutes and again compared to the control. Activity A: Acid-Base Indicator Equilibrium Approximately 2 ml of denizen water was added into a test tube with 5 drops of 0. 04 % biorhythms blue. Four drops of 0. 1 M hydrochloric acid was added to the solution and mixed. Four drops of 0. 1 M sodium hydroxide was added to the solution and mixed. After solution appeared to change back to original conditions. Activity B: Formation of a copper complex ion. 5 ml of 0. M copper (II) sulfate was added to a test tube. One Drop of ammonium hydroxide was added to 5 ml of copper (II) sulfate Another drop of ammonium hydroxide was added to the solution Two Drops of hydrochloric acid was added to the solution Two Drops of ammonium hydroxide was added to the solution Four drops of hydrochloric acid was added to the solution Another 2 drops of hydrochloric was added to the solution Activity C: Formation of a Cobalt Complex Ion. 2 ml of the cobalt chloride solution was added to three separate test tubes (A, B, and C). Ml of silver nitrate (milky white color) was added in test tube A Three gains of calcium chloride was added to test tube B 1 ml of Hydrochloric Acid was added to test tube C Activity D: Solubility of Carbon Dioxide: Approximately 10 ml of fresh seltzer water has mixed with 20 drops of 0. 04 % broodmares green indicator. The initial color was compared to a pH chart. The solution was drawn up into a syringe, the excess air squeezed out, and the syringe capped. A vacuum was generated by pulling out the syringe, and the solution was shaken.

The solution was then compared against a color coded pH chart to determine any change. Activity E: Solubility of Magnesium Hydroxide 10 ml of milk of magnesia was added to 50 ml or denizen water in a beaker with 5 – 10 drops of universal indicator solution. This mixture was placed on a magnetic stirrer, to ensure consistent mixing. Eight drops of indicator fluid is added to 10 ml of milk of magnesia The solution was placed in SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS: Cobalt chloride solution is moderately toxic by ingestion.

Iron (Ill) nitrate solution may be a skin and body tissue irritant. Concentrated ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) solution is severely corrosive and toxic by inhalation and ingestion. Work with concentrated ammonium hydroxide only in a fume hood Hydrochloric acid solution is toxic by ingestion and inhalation and is corrosive to skin and eyes. Dilute hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions are skin and eye irritants. Potassium technocratic is toxic by ingestion and emits a toxic gas if strongly heated – do not heat this solution and do not add acid.

Sodium phosphate monobasic is moderately toxic by ingestion. Avoid contact of all chemicals with eyes and skin. Wear chemical splash goggles, chemical- resistant gloves, and a chemical-resistant apron. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before leaving the laboratory. Please follow all laboratory safety guidelines. Waste disposal followed as indicated by the teacher. PRE-LAB QUESTIONS: Explain why the solubility of iodine in water increases as the concentration of potassium iodide increases.

Adding potassium iodide stresses the equation in favor of one side. In order to UN-stress or relief the equation, the concentration of iodide must increase in order to maintain equilibrium. Equation: NO (g) + 02 (g) + jack NO(g) Explain why concentration of NO increases as Temperature increases. As temperature increases the equation would shift to the right, thus Predict whether the concentration of NO at equilibrium should increase as the action takes place at higher pressures.

Both sides of the equation have equal amounts of gas moles meaning when a pressures are increasing nothing should happen to the concentration of NO. DATA TABLES: Part A: Effect of Concentration Procedure: Observation Initial ml of potassium technocratic solution A light orange brown clear liquid h pea-sized potassium technician crystal was added No reaction/No color change Sodium phosphate was added and mixed into the solution ( h pea-sized) The colors changed from red to orange to a peach Addition of Iron (Ill) was placed at the brim of the solution

The solution turned blood red and created an ‘eyeball effect’ (blood red sitting on top of a lighter color) Addition of potassium technocratic was placed at the brim of the Petri dish Slow change from an orangey red to a burnt orange color Part B: Effect of Temperature The solution was split into two test tubes (A and B) A burnt orange color Test tube A was placed in an ice water bath for 3 minutes The solution changed from its previous burnt orange to a reddish brown color Test tube B was placed in a hot water bath (ICC) The solution began to take on a much lighter orange color

Initial 2 ml of denizen water The color is clear Five drops of brotherly blue (. 04 %) is added to 2 ml of denizen water The color shifted from clear to yellow Four drops of hydrochloric acid is added to the solution The color shifted from yellow to blue green then quickly reverts back to its previous stage yellow Four drops of sodium hydroxide is added to the solution The color shifts from yellow to blue and stays in this stage of blue Activity B: Formation of a copper complex ion Observations 5 ml of copper (II) sulfate was added to a test tube A clear blue

One drop of ammonium hydroxide was added to 5 ml of copper sulfate The color shifted from clear blue to dark blue Another drop of ammonium hydroxide was added to the solution and mixed thoroughly The solution changes to a lighter sky blue Two drops of hydrochloric acid is added to the solution and mixed The color shifted back to its initial blue color Two drops of ammonium hydroxide was added to the solution and mixed The color shifted to a indigo on the top and the initial blue still on the bottom Four drops of hydrochloric acid was added to the solution and mixed The color shifted to a light blue color

Another two drops of hydrochloric acid is added to the solution and mixed Fragments were formed and blue ring are reflected at the top of the test tube 2 ml of cobalt chloride was added into 3 test tubes. The test tubes were labeled A, B, and C The initial color was light pink 1 ml of silver nitrate was added in test tube A The milky white silver nitrate made the solution turn a light pale pink color with white at the bottom of the tube Three grains of calcium chloride was added to test tube B.

The grains settled at the bottom and turned the bottom of the solution blue as they began to dissolve ml of hydrochloric acid was added to test tube C. The solution turned clear blue with a blue ring at the top of the test tube Activity D: Solubility of Carbon Dioxide Added 10 ml of seltzer water to 50 ml beaker The initial color was clear Added twenty drops of . 4% broodmares green to the 50 ml breaker The color shifted to turquoise (4. PH) We drew up 10 ml of the solution with a 30 ml syringe (sealed) and shook its contents The solution moved to a blue color (5. PH) 50 ml of distilled water was added to a 250 ml breaker 10 ml of milk of magnesia solution was added to 50 ml of distilled water

The color changed to a milky white Eight drops of indicator fluid was added to the solution The color shifted to a light purple color 1 ml hydrochloric acid was added to the solution The solution changed colors rapidly from pink to yellow to green then back to the light purple Another ml of hydrochloric acid was added to the solution The solution changed colors rapidly again from pink to yellow to green to teal to blue then back to purple One more ml of hydrochloric acid was added to the solution The solution changed colors rapidly once more from pink to green to teal to blue ND slowly turned back to purple CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the application of El Chastiser’s Principle explained the chemistry behind the color changes taking place in the experiment. When adding a reactant into the solution, the volume of the solution (and as a result the concentration of the reactants in the solution) was immediately changed. Using El Chastiser’s Principle we were able to predict which side the reaction would be shifted. The delineation between the reactant and products colors allowed for this.

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