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Because the pigments eave specific characteristic rate of movement they were able to be separated. Another Objective Of this experiment was to measure the rate Of photosynthesis by the use of a spectrophotometer. Indeed we tried to determine if light and healthy pigments were necessary for the occurrence Of the photosynthesis.

Different tubes were used, some containing healthy chloroplasts. And other containing unhealthy chloroplasts. They were exposed to light or hidden from it by being wrapped with foil.

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The results showed that the tube which was exposed to light and containing healthy chloroplasts had the higher rate of Hottentots. INTRODUCTION All living organisms require energy for their metabolic process. The essential source of this energy is the sun. Photosynthetic organisms, including plants, protests and blue green algae, convert light energy into the chemical energy of sugar which can be used as fuel for their metabolism. These organisms are called photosphere’s since they can create their own food.This is a summary equation for photosynthesis: 6 CO 12 H2O CHI 206 6 H2O 6 02.

Carbon dioxide and avatar are used and sugar water and oxygen are released. Although water appears on both sides of the equation, these are not the same water molecules. Water molecules from the reactants are split to release electrons, whereas water molecules from the products come from hydrogen and oxygen released during the photo and bio-chemical process Of the reactions. The photochemical phase Of photosynthesis is referred as ‘light reactions”.During this phase, molecules in the ayatollahs, referred as pigments (molecules that absorb some colors, and reflect some Others) are used to capture light energy.

We can count 4 main pigments of green plants: he primary ones are chlorophyll a and b which are greenish pigments; the two others are carotenes and contextually, two yellowish accessory pigments. During the biochemical phase which is referred as ‘dark reactions’ or ‘Calvin cycle’, the TAP and NADIA produced by the photochemical reactions are used to reduce CO to sugar. This phase occurs in the storms, the liquid that surrounds the ayatollahs.Photosynthesis can thus be divided into two sets of reaction as we have just seen.

In this experiment we will investigate some major aspects of the Hottentots, as well as isolate and identify the photosynthetic pigments, In order to separate the 4 pigments we are going to use the technique tot paper chromatography, This technique is used to separate dissolved compounds, here when the solution of the pigments will be applied to the strip of paper, the pigments will absorb onto the fibers of the paper _ With a paper immersed in a solvent, the pigments will move up through the paper.Since each pigment has a specific rate of movement we will be able to distinguish them. In order to establish the relative rate of migration for each pigment, the Revalue for ACH pigment is calculated.

The RFC value represents the Distance traveled by the pigment divided by the distance traveled by the solvent. This value is used by scientists to identify molecules. In the second part Of the experiment, the hypothesis that states that photosynthesis needs light and healthy pigment in order to occur Will be tested, using tubes under different conditions.PROCEDURES Part A: Chromatography and Plant Pigments: 1 ml of chromatography solvent was poured in a chromatography vial, The vial was then caped in order to have the atmosphere inside saturated with solvent vapors, At 1, 5 CM of the end of a chromatography strip a pencil line was drawn across the width of the strip, and a pointed end was done in cutting vivo pieces. The pointed end referred as the bottom end of the chromatogram. A piece of fresh spinach was obtained and placed over the line on the chromatography strip.

To extract its pigments we rubbed the ribbed edge of a coin over the spinach. This was repeated 5 to 10 times. The chromatography strip was then placed into the vial so that the pointed end was barely immersed in the solvent, The vial avgas then caped and leave undisturbed. We observed how the solvent was drawn up the chromatography strip by capillary action, and oeuvre able to see the plant pigments separating along the strip, different colors avgas then seen during this process.

When the solvent reaches approximately I CM from the top, the strip was removed from the vial, and we obtained a chromatogram. As the solvent evaporates quickly we immediately marked its location. The pigment colors that we observed were reported in Table 1. The distances from the pencil line to the solvents front were measured and recorded in Table I , and then the RFC distance was calculated. Part B: Photosynthesis The spectrophotometer was turned on and the wavelength was set up to snare.An incubation area With a floodlight, a flask of water and a sample holder was set up. Then 4 covets were labeled 1-4.

Tube 2 was used as the experiment control, and was wrapped by aluminum foil to keep the chloroplast in complete darkness. Then the covets were prepared following the Randal The spectrophotometer was zeroed. Three drops of unbilled chloroplasts were transferred in in each covets 1, 2 and 3 before each often was placed in the spectrophotometer (for covets 2 he foil has been removed before placing it in the sample holder, the foil was then replaced).

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