Illustrate, describe, and differentiate the different types of animal tissues b. Illustrate and describe the organization of different tissues in an animal organ c. Identify the tissues that compromise the anatomical plan of animals in cross section II. Materials: Laboratory knife Distilled water Microscope Slide of the longitudinal section of the root tip of Zee Mays spectacle Slide of a cross section of the leaf of Koori SP. Cross section of the stem of Curtain SP.
Cross section of the stem of Healthiest Cross section of Zee Mays stem Leaf of Roe A section of the ciliated epithelium (frogs small intestine, frog’s ciliated epithelium, cheek cells Blood smear Slide of an adipose tissue Slide containing a hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage Cross section of one Prepared slide of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle Nerve cell smear Ill. Procedure: A. Imperialistic Tissue 1. Obtain a slide of the longitudinal section of the root tip of Zee Mays. Focus the specimen under the scanner. 3. Draw the specimen. Include a brief description. B. Dermal Tissue 1.
Obtain a leaf of Roe spectacle. 2. 2. Prepare an epidermal tissue wet mount by peeling off a portion of the upper epidermis. 3. Examine the tissue under the HOP. 4. Draw the epidermal cells. Include a brief description on the shape and arrangement of cells. C. Ground Tissues a) Permanency 1. Obtain a slide off cross section of the leaf of Koori SP. 2. Focus it under the microscope and locate the blade – the flattened portion of the leaf. 3. Observe the epidermal cells, a single layer of cells found at the top and bottom surfaces. 4. The middle portion of the leaf is the mesosphere layer, filled with permanency 5.
Note the presence of two layers of the mesosphere layer: (a) palisade tissue. And (b) spongy mesosphere layer. A. Palisade Mesosphere Layer – located at the upper epidermis; contain chloroplast and are responsible in carrying most of the plant’s photosynthesis. B. Spongy Mesosphere Layer – located near the lower epidermis, have air spaces that facilitate exchange of gases across the plasma membrane. 6. Draw the permanency cells accompanied with a brief description. B) Coalescence 1. Examine the cross section of the stem of Circuital SP. Under LOOP. 2. Observe the coalescence cells which form a layer of tissue just below the epidermis. . Note the uneven thickening of the cell walls and the presence or absence of the intracellular spaces. 4. Draw the coalescence tissues accompanied with a brief description. C)Clergyman’s 1. Examine the cross section of the stem Healthiest under LOOP. 2. Observe the cortex located below the epidermis. . Take note of the vascular bundles. 4. Direct your attention to the mass of red stained cells forming a cap on each vascular bundle. These are the clergyman’s tissues. 5. Draw the clergyman’s tissue accompanied with a brief description. D. Vascular Tissues a)Vascular Bundles 1.
Examine a cross section of Zee Mays stem under LOOP. 2. Note the numerous vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem. 3. Locate one bundle and focus under HOP. 4. Observe for the following: a. Xylem – heavily red stained; transport of materials from roots to shoots. B. Phloem – lightly blue stained; transport of photosynthesis from shoots to tots. i. Sieve tubes ii. Companion cells c. Clergyman’s sheath – darkly red stained; encloses the vascular bundles 5. Draw the vascular bundle and label the xylem, phloem (including components), and the clergyman’s sheath. Include a brief description.
A. Epithelial Tissues 1. Examine under LOOP a section of the ciliated epithelium. 2. Locate cilia bearing cells. 3. Draw the cell and label the ciliated epithelial tissue. Indicate the function. Connective Tissues a)Vascular Tissue 1. Examine a blood smear under LOOP. B. 2. Locate the erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thromboses. 3. Draw and label he blood components. Include a brief description of each. B) CT Proper 1. Examine the slide of an adipose tissue under LOOP. 2. Locate the adipose or fat cells. 3. Draw the adipose tissue accompanied with a brief description. C) Cartilage 1.
Obtain a slide containing a hyaline cartilage and focus under HOP. 2. Look for the ecosystems, cartilage cells located in the cavities (lacuna) of the bluish 3. Draw and label the constructed. Include a brief description. D) matrix. Bone 1. Examine a cross section of bone under the scanner. 2. Observe the irregular cylindrical units forming the bone. This is the Havening System. 3. Focus on one Havening System and switch to HOP. 4. At the center of the system lies the Havening Canal, through which blood vessels and nerves pass through. 5. Take note of the darkly-stained ecosystem surrounding the Havening Canal. . Draw the bone tissue showing several Havening Systems. Include a brief description. C. Muscular Tissue 1. Obtain prepared slide of the following: a. Skeletal Muscle b. Smooth Muscle c. Cardiac Muscle 2. Examine slides under LOOP. 3. Draw each specimen and include a brief description of each. D. Nervous Tissue 1. Examine a nerve cell smear under HOP. Locate the star-shaped cells. 2. Locate the following: a. Soma/Body Cell – central position of the neuron containing the nucleus. B. Dendrites – short and branched processes radiating from the soma; carry impulses towards the cell body c.
Axons – longer processes radiating from the soma; transmit impulses away from the cell body 3. Draw and label the soma, dendrites, and axons. Include a brief description. IV. Results Figure 1. Longitudinal section of the root tip of Zee Mays under scanner. Figure 2. Leaf of Roe spectacle examined under HOP. C. Ground Tissues Figure 3. Leaf of Koori SP. Examined. ) Coalescence Figure 4. Cross section of the stem of Curtain SP. Examined under LOOP. C) Clergyman’s Figure 5. Cross section of the stem of Healthiest examined under LOOP. D. Vascular Tissue a) Vascular Bundles Figure 6.
Leaf of Roe spectacle examine under HOP. Figure 7. Section of ciliated epithelium of frog examined under LOOP. Figure 8. Section of ciliated epithelium of frog’s small intestine examined under LOOP. Figure 9. Section of ciliated epithelium of frog examined under LOOP. B. Connective Tissues a) Vascular Tissue Figure 10. Blood smear and its components examined under LOOP. B) CT Proper Figure 11 . Adipose tissue examined under HOP. C) Cartilage Figure 12. Hyaline cartilage examined under HOP. Figure 13. Elastic cartilage examined under LOOP. D) Bone e) Figure 14.
Bone tissue examined under scanner. C. Muscular Tissue Figure 15. Skeletal muscle examined under LOOP. Figure 16. Smooth muscle examined under LOOP. Figure 17. Cardiac muscle examined under LOOP. D. Nervous Tissues Figure 18. Nerve cell smear examined under HOP. V. Discussion Plant tissues are grouped into four, namely: imperialistic tissue, dermal tissue, vascular tissue and ground tissue which have different properties and functions. Imperialistic tissue consists of undifferentiated cells where active cell division occurs. It is an area of active plant growth.
Undifferentiated cells divide and form new, specialized cells. Imperialistic tissue may be the cambium layer, leaf or flower buds, shoot tips, or root tips (Bailey, n. D. ). The plant’s outer protective covering is called the dermal tissue and it forms the first line of defense against physical damage and pathogens which consists of the epidermis and the premiere. The epidermis is generally a single layer of closely packed cells. It both covers and protects the Guard cells in the epidermis regulate as exchange between the plant and the environment by controlling the size of the stomata openings.
The premiere, also called bark composed of many layers which replaces the epidermis in plants that undergo secondary growth. The premiere protects the plant from pathogens, injury, prevents excessive water loss, and insulates the plant (Campbell et. Al. , 2008). According to Campbell et. Al. (2008), vascular tissue carries out long-distance transport of materials between the root and the shoot systems. It composed of two major conducting systems, the xylem and phloem. The xylem transports water and mineral ions room the root to the rest of the plant.
The phloem distributes the products of photosynthesis and a variety of other solutes throughout the plant. Tissues that are neither dermal nor vascular are characterized as ground tissues. They make up the bulk of the plant and includes various cells specialized for functions such as storage, photosynthesis, and support (Campbell et. Al, 2008). There are three types of ground tissue, permanency, coalescence and clergyman’s. Permanency, the most profuse ground tissue, consists of thin-walled which are metabolically active cells that carry out a variety of functions in the plant which includes photosynthesis and storage.
Permanency cells are also responsible for healing in the plant, this tissue can go through cell division and regenerate when needed. Coalescence tissue is composed of narrow, elongated cells with thick primary walls which provide structural support to the growing plant body that are not growing and are not fully established, particularly shoots, and their thickened walls are not woody, so they can stretch as the organ elongates. Clergyman’s is the ground tissue that provides structural support to the parts of the plant that are no longer growing.