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Photosynthesis is a process where plants harness the sunlight they receive and hey produce carbohydrates, as well as oxygen for living things and other plants. Now the sunlight ultimately powers the process of photosynthesis. Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist that used a light prism and demonstrated how white light contains varying colors. These colors range from red at one end of the visible spectrum to the color violet at the other end. Then another spectrum was added called the electromagnetic spectrum (or a continuous spectrum) by James Clerk Maxwell; this included: cosmic rays, visible light, x-rays, and radio waves.

For plants to use sunlight, they have to absorb it. So pigments absorb light energy. Chlorophyll is a pigment in leaves that reflect green light waves. This is the most important pigment in photosynthesis and there are also accessory pigments used in plants. Also in this lab there is the internal and external anatomy oaf typical leaf. Materials and methods: The first procedure dealt with the internal anatomy of a leaf. The materials needed are: colored pencils, a prepared slide of a leaf, and a compound microscope.

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After obtaining the prepared slide of a leaf, we used a compound microscope to observe the leaf. Then we sketched the leaf and labeled the allowing structures: cuticle, epidermis, mesosphere, palisade permanency, spongy permanency, stomata, and guard cells. The next procedure dealt with the external leaf structure. The materials needed are: a idiotic leaf, dissecting microscope or hand lens, and colored pencils. First we obtained a leaf from our instructor. Then we sketched the leaf and labeled the blade and petiole. The following procedure dealt with a chromatogram.

The materials needed are: a pencil, safety goggles, scissors, chromatography paper strip, capillary tube, spinach plant pigment extract, test tube, cork stopper, graduated cylinder, hermaphrodite solvent (alternative spoilsport alcohol), metric ruler, stopwatch or clock with a secondhand, hook/fashioned paperclip, paper towels, test tube rack, and mortar and pestle. First we obtained a strip of chromatography paper and cut it so it would fit inside a test tube (with it barely touching the bottom of the tube). Also, when touching the strip, touch the sides only.

Then we attached (firmly) the top of the strip to a hook (or fashioned paperclip at bottom of the cork stopper). Make sure it fits in the test tube. Next we used the pencil to draw a faint line across the strip two centimeters from the bottom tip of the strip. We placed the cork and strip in place, and we put a mark on the test tube one centimeter below the top of the stopper. The next step was to place the strip of chromatography paper on a paper towel. Then dip a capillary tube into the plant pigment extract (spinach pigment extract) provided by the teacher.

The tube will fill on its own. We applied the extract to the pencil line on the paper, blew the strip dry, and repeated it three to four times until the line on the paper is a dark green. We used a graduated cylinder and carefully measures 5 millimeters of chromatography solvent to pour into the est.. Tube. Then we placed the chromatography strip in the test tube, positioning it so the tip of the strip barely touched the solvent. Then we kept the test tube capped and put it in the test tube rack. We then observed as the solvent rose on the paper and we recorded our findings.

After the solvent has moved up to the line drawn on the paper, remove test tube and the paper from the test tube. We set aside the paper to let it dry. Then we identified the pigment bands, the migration, and the rate of migration. The proceeding activity dealt with leaf collection and pigments from native trees. The materials needed are: at least three leaf specimens collected from a nearby source and a piece of typing paper. First someone in our group took a walk around campus and collected three different leaves.

We then had to identify the plant specimens and smear them onto a piece of white typing paper. But right before smearing them, we observed them and described what we saw. We then recorded what we saw on the smeared paper. The least procedure dealt with the intake of carbon dioxide. The materials needed are: a test tube, a large leafy piece of Elodea, test tube rack, medicine dropper, 1% solution of phenol red pH indicator), stopper, straw, and water. First fill two thirds of a test tube with water and place the Elodea in a tube. We added four to five drops of the phenol red to the test tube.

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