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The two most significant ones are magnesium (MGM+) and calcium (Ca+)(1). Water is an excellent solvent and therefore easily picks up impurities such as from the soil and rocks that it hits and touches as it moves. The amount of minerals that a water sample contains is directly proportional to its water hardness. Why is water hardness important? Water hardness is extremely important because is vital to our health. Although it isn’t directly hazardous to our health, it can cause two significant problems that we encounter in our day to day lives.

The first significant problem that eater hardness causes is that it results in mineral residue while cleaning dishes. The second most significant problem that water hardness causes is that scale can accumulate on the inside of appliances which leads to blockages(2). In both of these problems, hard water and different forms of bicarbonate ions are combined. When these two substances are combined, an insoluble precipitate is formed. This precipitate is called scale. On pats and pans, and basically any vessel that we heat up, this scale remains and accumulates.

Although the residue is not harmful in such small quantities, when larger quantities of the same absence are accumulated, it can be a problem. For example, some industries use this reaction for production which causes an extensive amount of money to be put into heat transfer because as deposit builds up, heat transfer is compromised (2). Therefore, when industries require this reaction to run their business a sufficient amount of their money is used solely on the upkeep of machinery. The other issue that is most prevalent with water hardness is the precipitate that clogs pipes and dishwashers.

This hinders water flow and stops the plumbing from working correctly. How do we measure water hardness? Summary of EDT and AAA, how they work, what is different about them, why use two separate methods? Two different methods can be used in order to measure water hardness. The first method is atomic absorption spectroscopy. In this process, the concentration of components can be measured through the use of wavelengths of light absorbed by each component (3). This can be done through an open flame test.

An open flame test is when a sample is put into an open flame, typically on a Bunsen burner, in order to separate the components into their respective atomic units. Then, a light with a pre-measured/ standard wavelength is sent wrought the sample. We can then observe how much of the light is absorbed and based on that, measure the concentration of the component that absorbed the wavelength. Another way to measure the hardness of water is through the use of EDT, also known as Ethylenediaminetetetraacetic acid), titration. In this process, EDT, BET (ricochet black T), and the water sample are combined.

We are able to measure how hard the water is based on the change in the solutions color (4). The process is summarized in the following equation: HAD- + MGM+ +Ca+ Blue MGM- + + Ca+ Red EDT Cadet + Magenta + HAD(immediately) (eventually) last) When comparing two methods, it is obvious that using the AAA method is faster and more accurate how it is also more expensive than using the EDT method. Therefore, both methods have good and bad things to them. Hence, logically, it makes sense for large scale industries to use the AAA method and for small scale industries to use the EDT process in order to be efficient.

How do softening techniques work? There are two different techniques that can be used in order to soften hard water. The first technique is by using commercial water conditioning agents. The second technique is by using action resin exchange. For the first method, the desired effect can be achieved through simply adding a commercial water- conditioning agent, such as the arm and hammer super washing soda, to the water sample. Through this reaction, the minerals are separated from the water as they react and eventually attach to the agent. For the second method, water is be softened by literally exchanging resin ions, (An+ or H+) with actions. Ca+ and MGM+). What is your hypothesis? As a group, we chose to the measure the hardness of 5 different water samples. 1) Whippier dam 2) Spring creek 3) Slab Cabin Run 4) Lake at Golf Course 5) Tap Water. We expected the whippier damn to be fairly soft because this water comes from rain and rain water is naturally soft. However, the water at the bottom of the creek we expected to be hard because it reacts with soil, rocks and such that release MGM+ and Ca+ ions. This makes the water hard. We also expected the slab cabin run and the small lake at the golf course along with the tap water to be hard.

All three of those places are monitored by a company or the government and therefore aren’t simply just rain water. They have many chemicals in them. So, they are most likely hard cause they have been mixed with a lot of chemicals and none of them are pure therefore they must have a large amount of MGM+ and Ca+ in them. The water from East Halls is expected to be pretty soft because it is probably purified and therefore won’t contain MGM+ or Ca+. We expect to see that the farther the two places are from each other the bigger the difference there will be in their hardness.

Proceed re(6) The Us Checkmate Small-Scale Experiments for General Chemistry, written by Stephen Thompson, Edited for Penn State by Joseph T. Kaiser, 2014-2015, up. 10-14 to 10-22, provides us with a procedure for Sections A to G. My group followed the same procedure as mentioned in the Us Checkmate with one exception. Everyone in my group, except for one person who, diluted their samples with distilled water in order to soften the degree of hardness. Diluted it as follows. Take 5. 00 ml of the water sample in a graduated cylinder. Add 5. 00 ml of distilled water to it.

This dilution process had a 1:1 ratio and it halved the initial hardness of the water samples. He diluted his as follows. Add 10. 00 ml of distilled water to it. This dilution process had a 2:1 ratio and it one-third the initial hardness of the water sample. Section A Determination of Water Hardness of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAA) Filled two of my pipettes with the diluter water sample I prepared, to around two- thirds of the height of the bulb. The first pipette containing my water sample was aspirated into a flame of the first spectrophotometer and the Magnesium ion concentration was recorded.

The second pipette containing my water sample was aspirated into a flame of the second spectrophotometer and the Calcium ion concentration was recorded. A calibrated graph was used to determine the hardness of the sample. Section B Evaporation of Your Water Sample to Give Total Dissolved Solids A CM x CM piece of aluminum foil was used. 1 drop of 1. Axis-3 M Ca+, 1 drop of my water sample and 1 drop of distilled water was put onto the foil about 0. 5 CM away from each other and the foil was placed on a hot plate. After all the water evaporated, I recorded the precipitate I observed on the foil.

Section C Divalent Action Analysis by DE TA Titration Step 1: The first three wells of the Alex well strip each had 1 drop of BET. The second and third wells had 1 drop of the NH/Enoch buffer solution. The third well had 1 drop of IOWA-MM MGM+ solution. Then i recorded my observations. Step 2: 1 drop feet, 1 drop of NH/Enoch buffer, and 1 drop of the laxly-3 M Ca+ solution were added to each well in a Alex well strip. For titration, 1 drop of the EDT solution was added in graduation. Then, the original concentration of the Ca+ solution was calculated.

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