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Carbohydrates are the product that made up from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates are form by the combination of carbon dioxide and water molecules. The carbohydrates contain two specific functional group in it which is the hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups. A reducing sugar is a type of sugar with is an allayed group. This means that sugar can act as a reducing agent. The process of reducing sugar is commiseration,example of reducing sugar silicates,maltose,glucose and fructose. All inconsiderate are capable of reducing other chemicals such as copper (II) sulfate to copper oxide.

Beside that disaccharide such as maltose and lactose are reducing sugar,however sucrose is non reducing sugar. Sugar exist in solution as an equilibrium mixture of open chain and closed ring or in other words is cyclic structures. Len the open chain form,the carbon contains special bond called carbonyl carbon. Len closed ring form or cyclic structure the carbonyl carbon is the one attached to the (O) of the ring and OH group. This sugars is called reducing sugar because the oxidation agent is reduce during the reaction.

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Therefore non reducing sugar cannot be oxidized my mild oxidation agent. When the closed-ring (cyclic) structure of a macroeconomics opens to form a chain, the result can be divided into two which is an allayed or an ketene. Sugars that are altitudes are known as alludes. Sugars that are stones are known as ketosis. Glucose and calaboose are example of alludes while fructose is an example of ketosis. There are few test can be done for testing these sugar to show or prove are they reducing sugar or non reducing sugar.

Example of the test that can be done is Benedict test. 1 In plant,glucose is stored as the polysaccharide starch. Example of food that rich in starch is oat,cereal,rice and corn. Starch can be divided into two groups which is that is amylase and amplification. Natural starches are mixtures of amylase (10-20%) and amplification (80-90%). Amylase forms a colloidal dispersion in hot water whereas amplification is completely insoluble. The structure of amylase consists of a long polymer chains of glucose units connected by an alpha acetate linkage.

Protein is a large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the DNA coding for the protein. Protein also are required for the structure functions ND regulation of the body cells,tissues and organs. There are a lot of protein in our body and each specific protein has it own unique function. Protein are also essential components of muscles, skin, bones and the body as a whole. Example of protein is enzymes,hormones and antibody. Protein are also one of the three types of nutrients used as energy sources by the body, the other two being carbohydrate and fat.

OBJECTIVE: To identify and define differentiating between reducing and non-reducing sugars MATERIALS AND APPARATUS : Test tube, test tube holder, tray, water bath, sucrose solution, maltose solution, loose solution, lactose solution, Benedicts reagent, dilute hydrochloric acid solution, sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, pH indicator, starch, iodine, potassium iodide solution, copper sulfate solution, potassium hydroxide solution, albumin water and stopwatch. Test for reducing sugar Method 1. The water is brought into the water bath to achieve its boiling point and the source of heat were turn down 2. CM of the solution is taken to be tested and were added by 2 CM of Benedict solution 3. The reagent was mixed thoroughly 4. The test tube were placed in water bath and left for 5 minutes Results : Solution Before testator test Glucose Blue Brick-red Maltose Blue Brick red Lactose Blue Brick red Sucrose Blue Blue Test for Non reducing sugar Method : Observation 1. Anon-reducing sugar sample was identified from the test that carried in section A. 2. 1 CM of dilute hydrochloric acid was added to a fresh sample of 2 CM of solution that has been tested and was mixed and boiled for 2-3 minutes. . Sodium hydrogen carbonate was added to the solution until it becomes neutral. Ph paper was used for this test to determine its pH value. 4. The reducing sugar test were carried out again as in section A(i). Results: Sucrose Colorless Brick red Test for starch observation Before After 1. 2 drops were placed in the tested solution in a spotting tile, 2. Iodide solution is added by a drop of iodine. Potassium Results: Before After Starch colorless Black Test for protein 1. CM of a solution was tested and added 2 CM of 10% of potassium hydroxide solution and the test tube was shaded. . 0. 5% of copper sulfate solution was added by drop at a time and and the test tube was shaded continuously. 3. Step 1 and 2 was repeated by using distilled water by replacing the test solution. Solution observation Laymen ?? Cloudy Purple Water Colorless DISCUSSION: Benedicts reagent is a solution of copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide, and tartaric acid. There are two sources of reducing power. The major source of reducing power is from the allayed group of the Aledo’s, as glucose. At the same time, the allayed group of the Aledo’s would be oxidized into acid group.

If it is a ketosis, the molecule would be broken down into 2 segments as it is oxidized. When the solution of carbohydrate and Benedict is heated, a formation of red brick precipitate is appeared. The precipitate is the formation of Quo from the Benedict solution. This happen because macroeconomics will reduce Cuscus n the Benedict solution to Quo. All type of macroeconomics that can do this reaction is known as reducing sugar. 3 The Benedicts test identifies reducing sugars based on their ability to reduce the cupric ions to cuprous oxide at high pH values (basic solutions).

Cuprous oxide is green to reddish orange. A green solution indicates a small amount of reducing sugars, while a reddish-orange solution indicates an abundance of reducing sugars. If the solution contains sucrose, a non-reducing sugar, there is no change in color in the solution, and it remains blue. The test to identify non-reducing sugar is a little bit different. A yep of non-reducing sugar such as sucrose is heated with 1 ml of hydrochloric acid, HCI to change it into molecule of reducing sugar. Sucrose is hydrolysis by HCI to glucose and fructose.

The mixture is cooled after heated. Then a few drop of Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate (Enhance) is added to neutralize the acid. After that mixture is heated again and Mil of Benedict reagent is added. A formation of red precipitate will give positive result for this test. Iodine test is used to determine the present of starch a type of carbohydrate. Amylase in starch molecule will turn the brownish color of iodine to dark blue color. Iodine is not ere soluble in water therefore the iodine reagent is made by dissolving iodine in water in the presence of potassium iodide.

This makes a linear trioxide ion complex with is soluble. The trioxide ion slips into the coil of the starch causing an intense blue-black color. Only the albumen should give a purple color. A student should not be prepared to make a generalization about all proteins from a single reaction with albumen solution. If albumen is a typical protein, then it is proteins that will normally give the Beirut reaction. In fact it is given by all substances having at least two peptide linkages (-CO-NH-) which include al proteins and most peptides.

It could be argued that sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate will produce the characteristic purple color whether or not proteins are present but the reaction is suppressed in the presence of glucose or starch. CONCLUSION: Red brick of precipitate from blue show the present of the reducing sugar, glucose, maltose and lactose which is a macroeconomics of carbohydrate. Whereas for a colorless to a brick red precipitate shown in the solution sucrose proofs that it is a non-reducing sugar. The test for starch was observed and the color change was from colorless to blue black color.

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