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The solid was formed in the mixture ND the flask was shaken until it dissolved. The flash was rinsed with 15 ml deceleration and it was added to the separating funnel. 10 ml of water was added to the funnel and shaken to mix the layers. The lower organic phase was drained into the Erlenmeyer flask and the aqueous phase out of the funnel. After that, the organic layer was returned to the separating funnel and washed with Nasal solution. Anhydrous sodium sulfate was used as the drying agent and allowed the solution to stay for 15 minutes.

The Erlenmeyer flask was weighed and the pipette was used to transfer the solution from the drying agent to the lass. Finally, the hood was used to remove the deceleration with a stream of nitrogen in the beaker of water at the temperature ICC. The flask was weighed again to determine the final product after the nitrogen was blown over the solution after the another minute. Results: Butyl benzene: (Callahan) 1) Percent Yield: Weight (beaker) = 30. 02 g Weight II (beaker + I-browbeaten) = 30. Egg Weight of I-browbeaten = WI – WI = 30. 4 – 30. 02 = 0. 62 g Molar Mass of I-browbeaten (Chubb) = 137. 02 g/mol Molar Mass of butyl benzene (CLC 1 HI 402) = 178. Egg/mol Mole ratio = 1:1 Limiting agent: I-browbeaten Density of I-browbeaten= 1. Egg/ml, Volume = 2. Ml Mass of I-browbeaten = 1. 27 x 2. 0 = 2. Egg Theoretical mass of 1 -browbeaten = 2. 54 / 137. ASK 178. 23 Actual mass of I-browbeaten obtained = 0. 62 g percent Yield = 0. 62/3. 30 XIII% = 18. 8 % (3 Gig. Fig) Discussion 1) Errors & discrepancy = 3. 30 g (3 gig. Fig) Firstly, the error of the percent yield or 18. % yield of final product was due to the transfer of reactions of organic layers to the Erlenmeyer flask several times, which led to the lost of the final products. Besides, the excess benzene was not entirely removed by the water and remained in the final product. For the step of adding Nasal, the water was not entirely extracted from the organic product as only several times of the extraction were done in the experiment. 2) Mechanism of the reaction The above is the mechanism of the necrophilia substitution (SIN), which the negative O atom attacks the positive C atom and form the intermediate product in the second step.

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BRB is replaced by the benzene ion and BRB- is formed at the end of the reaction. Conclusion Butyl benzene is synthesized through the necrophilia substitution and the percent yield of the final product is 18. 8% from the experiment. ) How is the phase transfer catalyst removed from product? Water and deceleration are used to dissolve the phase transfer catalyst to the aqueous stage. Then, the aqueous layer with the catalyst can be removed by using the separating funnel. Besides, dehydrating agent can also be used to further remove the catalyst in the aqueous layer. ) What purpose does washing with 15% (half-saturated) Nasal solution serve? The 15% Nasal solution is to extract the water from the organic product because of its higher concentration of Nasal as compared with water. 3) There was a slight excess of sodium benzene in the reaction. How is this removed from the product? Addition of water to the final product can extract the excess sodium benzene from the final product by using the separating funnel. 4) What peak in the IR spectrum suggests the presence of water in the product?

The peak at about 3500-comic-1 suggests the stretching of O-H bond in the presence of water in the product. There are some differences between the stretching of different O-H bonds because of the differences of the vibration of OH in the water molecules, e. G. OH symmetric stretching and asymmetric stretching. 5) Using the theory of solvent effects on necrophilia substitution sections, suggest reasons for the enhanced reactivity of nucleotides in the presence of phase transfer catalysts.

As the encounter rate between the nucleotides and organic reagent is low, the addition of phase transfer catalyst helps the formation of inoculated ion- pairs with the nucleotides to transfer from the aqueous phase to the organic phase . Thus, the ion-pairs formed between the two layer can enhance the reactivity of nucleotides as the encounter rate becomes higher. The reactivity of nucleotides in the organic phase is also higher than that in the aqueous phase as water is not used as salvation.

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