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Theories (a) Capacitor Capacitor is an electrical passive device tort storing charge in the form tot electric field. In its simplest from, It consists basically consists of two conductors which are separated by a dielectric_ medium (non-conductor) such as air, waxed paper, plastics, etc, The capacitance of capacitor is directly proportional to the surface areas and the inverse of the separation of the two conductors. The dielectric constant of the non-conductor is also affecting the capacitance.BIGGER I Capacitor symbol For an ideal capacitor, the capacitor current ICC is proportional to the time rate Of hanger of the voltage across the capacitor: Where C is the proportionality constant and is known as capacitance. (b) Inductor Inductor is an electrical passive device for storing energy in the form of magnetic field. In its simplest from, It consists basically consists of a wire loop or coil. The inductance is directly proportional to the number of turns in the coil.

Inductance also depends on the radius of the coil and on the type of material around which the coil is wound.FIGURE 2 Inductor symbol For an ideal inductor, the inductor voltage FL is proportional to the time rate of hanger of the current through the inductor: Where L is the proportionality constant and is known as inductance. (c) ARC circuit ARC circuit is consists of resistor and capacitor. The simplest form is shown in below. FIGURE 3 Simplest ARC circuit For discharging case, when then By Kerchiefs Voltage Law, at the steady state, O-PVC. IVR O=IR-ICQ Assume the resistor and the capacitor are ideal (i. E. R and Care constant).

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Then we have O-?Rigid-ICQ (I–QED) QED-?CRY Quoi Q=at-1 React llano–try, Q=Joe-try By PVC-ICQ , PVC-Coco-try PVC=Vow-try Where time constant, t=ARC VI=Vow-11th When t=l, PVC=vow-l PVC=o. Vivo For half life, Prom the above, the half-life Of capacitor voltage was related to the time constant , when the time equal to t = 0. Err , then the voltage remains half. And if the time equal to time constant, the capacitor voltage would decrease to 0. Vivo For charging case, when t<O , then VS.=VOW O=PVC-IVR O-IR.

ICQ Assume the resistor and the capacitor are ideal (i. E. R and C are constant).Then 0=Rigid-ICQ (1=-QED) QED=CRY Quo-Quick-Tot-arced Len-Quo=try Q-CO(I -&tRC) By PVC=ICQ , -e-try) Where time constant, FRR -e-t 1 21) When PVC=o. Vivo From the above, the half-life of capacitor voltage was related to the time constant When the time equal to t = O_get , then the voltage remains half. And if the time equal to time constant, the capacitor voltage would decrease to 0. Vivo (d) RL circuit RL circuit is consists Of resistor and inductor. The simplest form is shown in FIGURE 4 Simplest RL circuit For current-out case, when , then VS.

=O 0=FL-IVR O-?Lid-lira Assume the resistor and the inductor are ideal (i. . L and C are constant), Then loll Idle=Tot-Ruled Online=-TTL, 1=Leo-TTL l=Leo-try Where time constant, 102=eye-11th 1=0. 36810 Poor half life, When t=t, From the above, the half-life of inductor current was related to the time constant hen the time equal to t = 0. 6931 then the current remains half. And if the time equal to time constant, the inductor current would decrease to 0. 36810 O=FL-IVR O.

Lid-lira 101-101 Idle=at-Ruled Nil-loll–TTL, r=LIRA TTT- -Incur=payoff When t=r, 1=0. 63210 , venue the time equal to t 0. 6931 then the current remains half.And if the time equal to time constant, the inductor current would decrease to 0. 63210 (e) Graphical method Of drawing a charging curve. To draw a charging curve, two parameters are needed. I _ The final voltage Vern, Which is the final value after the capacitor being fully charged. 2.

The time constant = ARC. Step I. Draw an initial point A at the origin (t = O , v = O) Step 2. Locate a point A’ on the line v = Vim such that A’ lags behind A by a time given Byrd.

Step 3. Draw the line AAA’. FIGURE 5 Graphical method step 3 Step 4 Select a point B on line AAA’. 