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Because the solders breadboard tort electronics does not require altering, it is reusable, This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. A variety to electronic systems may he prototyped by using breadboards, from small analog and digital circuits to complete central processing units (JPL’s). Construction of a breadboard. The purpose of the breadboard is to make quick electrical connections between components- like resistors, OLEOS, capacitors, etc. – So that you can test your circuit before permanently soldering it together.

A modern solders breadboard consists Of a perforated block Of plastic With numerous tin elated phosphor bronze or nickel silver alloy spring clips under the perforations. The clips are often called tie points or contact points. Bus and terminal strips: The layout Of a typical solders breadboard is made up from two types of areas, called strips. Strips consist of interconnected electrical terminals. Terminal strips The main areas, to hold most of the electronic components. In the middle off terminal strip of a breadboard, one typically finds a notch running in parallel to the long side.

The clips on the right and left of the notch are each connected in a radial way; typically five clips (i. . , beneath five holes) in a row on each side of the notch are electrically connected. The five clip columns on the left to the notch are often marked as A, 8, C, D, and E, while the ones on the right are marked g, G, H, and Bus strips. To provide power to the electronic components. A bus strip usually contains two columns: one for ground and one for a supply voltage. Typically the column intended for a supply voltage is marked in red, while the column for ground is marked in blue or black.

Bus strips typically run down one or both sides of a terminal strip or between terminal strips. On large roadbeds additional bus strips can Often be found on the top and bottom Of terminal strips. Setting up a breadboard. Parts Needed: -k Prototyping Breadboard or “proto-board” * Jump wires. Suggest several different colors, especially Red and Black for power * Wire cutters/stripers * A power source (IV DC should be the most useful. At least mama) Jump wires. Jump wires (also called jumper wires) for solders breadboard can be obtained in ready-to-use jump wire sets or can be manually manufactured.

Jump wire material should usually be 22 AWG (0. 33 mm) solid copper, tin-plated wire assuming no tiny plugs are to be attached to the wire ends. The wire ends should be stripped. Shorter stripped wires might result in had contact with the board’s spring clips (insulation being caught in the springs). Longer stripped wires increase the likelihood of short-circuits on the board. Needle-nose pliers and tweezers are helpful when inserting or removing wires, particularly on crowded boards. Alright, so you’ve bought a breadboard, gotten some wire to work with, and placed jumpers across the bus strip gap (if needed. Well, first you need a source of power and second, you need to distribute that power to all the bus strips. You will cut and strip wire jumpers between the bus strips to connect them all together. For sources Of power, you hue several options. You can use a wall adapter either at the correct voltage, or assemble a simple 3 terminal supply on the breadboard and connect the output from this to the bus strips. How does a breadboard work? Breadboards are generally used to test circuits. As this device have holes in it.

In order to form a circuit, wires are inserted simply inside the holes. An advantage of using a breadboard is that the positions of the wires can be changed if they re placed in a wrong order, In the below diagram you can see alphabets are used in order to identity vertical columns and numbers are used in order to identify vertical columns. In the below diagram you can see both the vertical columns and horizontal to be connected internally. As soon as the power is turned on, the current flows through these internal connections.

In the below diagram you can see how a resistor of 380 ohm and a LED are set up on the breadboard. A 3 volt battery is eventually attached to the LED light. Replace the current resistor with a resistor having 680 ohm you can see the assistance to be greater and the LED light to be dimmer. Limitations. * Breadboards are noisier than properly laid-out circuit boards sometimes far too noisy. * Breadboards, in general, do not support frequencies as high as properly laid-out circuit boards. * Breadboards, almost always, take up more physical space than the final circuit board design. . DC POWER SUPPLY We should be familiar to the following things about a DC Power Supply: * What is a DC power supply and what is it used for? * How does it work? What is a DC power supply and what is it used for? The term DC is used to ret to power systems that use only one polarity of voltage or current, and to refer to the constant, zero-frequency, or slowly varying local mean value of a voltage or current. For example, the voltage across a DC voltage source is constant as is the current through a DC current source.

Although DC stands for “direct current”, DC often refers to “constant polarity”. DC Power Supply is used to generate either a constant voltage or a constant current. Construction and working Of a DC power supply. In addition to supplying constant voltage, these supplies can also supply constant current. When in constant current mode, the power supply Will maintain the set current regardless of changes in the load’s resistance. This power supply outputs one adjustable voltage, Which is indicated by the one set of banana jack terminals.

The above arrangement of output terminals with the ground terminal between the and . Terminals is the most common and makes connecting either terminal to ground using a metal shorting bar very convenient. This is useful when you want one of the terminals to be referenced to ground. Of course, the same thing can he done with a piece of wire or a jumper wire with attackable banana plugs. The above power supply has coarse and fine controls for hot current and voltage. Some power supplies instead use 10-turn pots for adjustment. Others use thumbwheel switches or pushbutton switches.

Thumbwheel and pushbutton switches are useful (if their settings are accurate) because they can eliminate the need tort a meter. 3. Millimeter We should be familiar to the following things about a millimeter: ;k What is a millimeter and what is it used for? * Types of millimeters_ ;k How does it work? * Quantities Measured. ;k The Do’s and Don’t What is a millimeter and its purpose? A millimeter or a multistage, also known as a VON (Volt-Ohm meter), is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit.

A typical millimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current, and resistance. A millimeter can be a handheld device useful for basic fault finding and field service work, or a bench instrument which can measure to a very high degree of accuracy. They can be used to troubleshoot electrical problems in a wide array of industrial and household devices such as electronic equipment, motor controls, domestic appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems. Types of millimeters. Analog millimeters: It uses a micrometer whose pointer moves over a scale calibrated for all the different measurements that can be made. ;k Digital millimeters: It displays the measured value in numerals, and may also display a bar off length proportional to the quantity being measured, Operation, A millimeter is a combination of: * A multistage DC voltmeter ;k A multistage AC voltmeter * A multistage ammeter ;k A multistage ohmmeter. * An Uri-amplified analog millimeter combines a meter movement, range resistors and switches. Working of a millimeter.

Digital instruments, which necessarily incorporate amplifiers, for low-resistance shunts are connected in parallel with the meter movement to divert most of the current around the coil. Again for the case of a hypothetical 1 ma, 500 ohm movement on a 1 Ampere range, the shunt resistance would be just over 0. 5 ohms. For resistance measurements, usually a small constant current is passed through the device under test and the digital millimeter reads the resultant voltage drop; this eliminates the scale compression found in analog meters, but requires a source of significant current.

An outraging digital millimeter can automatically adjust the scaling network so that the measurement uses the dull precision of the AID converter. Modern millimeters are often digital due to their accuracy, durability and extra features. In a digital millimeter the signal under test is converted to a voltage and an amplifier with electronically controlled gain preconditions the signal. A digital millimeter displays the quantity measured as a number, which eliminates parallax errors.

In all types of millimeters, the quality of the switching elements is critical to stable and accurate measurements. Stability of the resistors is a limiting factor in the long-term accuracy and precision of the instrument. Quantities measured: Contemporary millimeters can measure many quantities. The common ones are: * Voltage, alternating and direct, in volts_ -k Current, alternating and direct, in amperes. The frequency range for Which AC measurements are accurate must be specified. * Resistance in ohms. The DO’s And DON’T ; While measuring voltage, never touch the bare probe tips together as it will lead to a short circuit. ; Set the right current range before measuring higher current otherwise it will blow the digital millimeter fuse. ; For current measurement, the millimeter should be connected in series while it should be connected in parallel tort voltage measurements. ; Don’t try to measure the current in household AC mains as it is dangerous, ; power should be tuned off before taking any measurement. 4.

FUNCTION GENERATOR We should be familiar to the following things about a function generator: ;k What is a function generator and what is it used for? * Working Of different types Of function generator. ;k How to use a function generator? * Features and controls. What is a function generator and What is its purpose? A function generator is usually a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate different types of electrical waveforms over a wide range of frequencies. Some of the most common waveforms produced by the function generator are the sine, square, triangular and cahoots shapes.

These waveforms can be either repetitive or single-shot (which requires an internal or external trigger source). Integrated circuits used to generate waveforms may also be described as attention generator Working of different types of function generators ) Simple function generators usually generate “triangular waveform” whose frequency can be controlled smoothly as well as in steps. This triangular wave is used as the basis for all of its other outputs. The triangular wave is generated by repeatedly charging and discharging a capacitor from a constant current source.

This produces a linearly ascending or descending voltage ramp As the output voltage reaches upper and lower limits, the charging and discharging is reversed using a comparator, producing the linear triangle wave. By varying the current and the size of the capacitor, different frequencies may be obtained. Cahoots waves” can be produced by charging the capacitor slowly, using a current, but using a diode over the current source to discharge quickly – the polarity of the diode changes the polarity of the resulting cahoots, i. E. Slow rise and fast fall, or fast rise and slow fall.

A 50% duty cycle square wave is easily obtained by noting whether the capacitor is being charged or discharged, which is reflected in the current switching comparator output. Other duty cycles (theoretically from 0% to 100%) can be obtained by using a comparator and the cahoots or triangle signal. Most unction generators also contain a non-linear diode shaping circuit that can convert the triangle wave into a reasonably accurate sine wave by rounding off the corners of the triangle wave in a process similar to clipping in audio systems. A typical function generator can provide frequencies up to 20 Mesh. ) More advanced function generators are called Arbitrary waveform generators (GALL They use direct digital synthesis (ADS) techniques to generate any waveform that can be described by a table of amplitudes. Function generators, like most signal generators, may also contain: An attenuator k Various means of modulating the output waveform, and * Often the ability to automatically and repetitively “sweep” the frequency Of the output waveform (by means of a voltage-controlled oscillator) between two operator-determined limits. This capability makes it very easy to evaluate the frequency response Of a given electronic circuit.

How to use a function generator? After powering on the function generator, the output signal needs to be configured to the desired shape. Typically, this means connecting the signal and ground leads to an oscilloscope to check the controls. Adjust the function enumerator until the output signal is correct, then attach the signal and ground leads from the function generator to the input and ground of the device under test, For some applications, the negative lead of the function generator should attach to a negative input of the device, but usually attaching to ground is sufficient.

The front panel of the HP CACAO is shown in Figure l. There are two outputs on the right hand side of the front-panel. One is called OUTPUT and is the regular output terminal at which the specified waveform appears The other output terminal is called SYNC and provides a digital signal that is “high” when the forearm’s output is positive, relative to the zero level, The SYNC signal is “low” when the output is negative. The SYNC signal is often used as a trigger signal. Both output terminals are of the “BANC” type, which can be connected to a coaxial cable (i. E. A shielded cable).

Figure 1: Front panel of the HP AAA function cinematographer’s generator a. Front Panel Number Entry In order to set the amplitude, frequency and Offset voltage Of a waveform, one needs to enter numbers. Numbers can be entered in three ways: (1) use the circular knob and > and < keys. One of the digits will be blinking on the display. When you turn the large circular knob you can increase or decrease the number that is blinking. (2) use the arrow keys <, >, up or down (3) Use the “Enter Number” mode to enter the number with the appropriate units shown on the right side of the panel.

First push the “ENTER NUMBER” key, followed why the number (see green numbers next to the keys on the front panel) and the units. At the end, push the ENTER key to enter the number (see Figure 2). To cancel the number mode, press SHIFT CANCEL keys. Figure 2: Entering numbers using the “Enter Number” mode. At power-on the function generator will output a sine wave of kHz and amplitude of Irony peak-to-peak (for a SO Ohm load resistance – see above). You can select another function or change the frequency, amplitude and offset voltage using the MODIFY keys. B.

Selection off standard waveform To select one of the four standard waveforms push the key with the icon of the desired waveform (sine, pulse, triangle, or ramp) as shown in Figure I. After selecting the proper waveform, an annunciation will show on the display the selected waveform. Arbitrary waveforms can be selected as well. YOU can now modify the amplitude, frequency (and duty cycle in case of a pulse) using the edify keys on the front panel. C. Frequency selection To enable the frequency mode, push the FREE key (Figures 1 and 3) and enter the desired frequency using one of the three methods to enter numbers described above.

You will see that the frequency annunciation is displayed to indicate that you can now change the frequency. After entering the number, press one of the arrow keys to set the units (Mesh. KHz, Hz’s). Figure 3: using the Modify Keys to select the frequency, amplitude, offset or duty cycle d. Amplitude selection Select the Amplitude Mode by pushing the AMPLE key (Figure 3). Enter the number or the amplitude in a similar way as for the frequency described above. Notice that you can express the amplitude in (m)V peak-to-peak (APP), in (m)V ARMS or do using the arrow keys on the right of the front panel.

The function generator is calibrated for a SO Ohm load which implies that the output voltage will be different from the one selected even the load resistance is different from 50 Ohm. The minimum amplitude is SC map and the maximum 10 APP for a SO Ohm load (and mapped and 20 APP, respectively, for an open circuit). E. Offset Voltage selection The waveforms have, by default, an offset voltage of OVA, which means that the oviform Will vary between a positive and negative value. If you want to offset the waveform, you will need to add an offset voltage.

To set the offset voltage, select the Offset Modify Mode and enter the number for the Offset voltage. The HP waveform generator requires that the offset voltage obeys the following restrictions: XP and * VPN vamp in which APP is the peak-to-peak voltage and Vamp is the maximum W)elate (=IV for a 50 Ohm load and CIVIC for a high impedance load. F. Duty Cycle selection This applies only to square waves. The default duty cycle is 50% and can be changed as follows. Select the Square Wave function by pushing the key with the square wave icon.

Next, enable the duty cycle modify mode by pushing the SHIFT and %DUTY keys (see Figure 3). Enter the number in % and press the ENTER key. G. Output of an arbitrariness’s There are five built-in arbitrary waveforms stored in non-volatile memory, These include since, exponential rise and fall, negative ramp and a cardiac function (which simulates the heart beat of the human heart), as shown in Figure In addition to these five functions, one can have four user-defined waveforms. Figure 4: The five built-in arbitrary functions

Features and controls: Most function generators allow the user to choose the shape Of the output from a small number of options. Square wave – The signal goes directly from high to low W)elate. 0;Sine wave The signal curves like a sinusoid from high to low voltage. []Accelerating wave . The signal goes from high to low voltage at a fixed rate. The amplitude control on a function generator varies the voltage difference between the high and low voltage of the output signal. The direct current (DC) offset control on a function generator varies the average voltage of a signal relative to the ground.

The frequency control of a function generator controls the rate at which output signal oscillates. On some function generators, the frequency control is a combination of different controls. One set of controls chooses the broad frequency range (order of magnitude) and the other selects the precise frequency. This allows the function generator to handle the enormous variation in frequency scale needed for signals. The duty cycle of a signal refers to the ratio of high voltage to elevator time in a square wave signal. 5. Sic LOOSE We should be familiar to the following things about an oscilloscope. N oscilloscope do and its uses? * Setting up. * Other Controls. What is an oscilloscope and what are its uses? * What is The oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device – it draws a graph to an electrical signal, In most applications the graph shows hove signals change over time: the vertical (Y) axis represents voltage and the horizontal (X) axis represents time, The intensity or brightness of the display is sometimes called the Z axis, This simple graph can tell you many things about a signal.

Here are a few: You can determine the time and voltage values of a signal. * You can calculate he frequency of an oscillating signal. ;k You can see the “moving parts” of a circuit represented by the signal. * You can tell if a malfunctioning component is distorting the signal. ;k You can find out how much of a signal is direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC)_ * You can tell how much Of the signal is noise and whether the noise is changing with time.

Figure X, Y, and Z Components of a Displayed Waveform Setting up Before you switch the oscilloscope on, check that all the controls are in their ‘normal’ positions. This means that: * all push button switches are in the OUT session * all slide switches are in the UP position all rotating controls are CENTERED * the central TIME/DIVE and VOLTS/DIVE and the HOLD OFF controls are in the calibrated, or CAL position Check through all the controls and put them in these positions: 2. Set both VOLTS/DIVE controls to 1 WOW and the TIME/DIVE control to 0. S/DIVE, its slowest setting: VOLTS/DIVE I TIME/DIVE I 3. Switch ON, red button, top centre: The green LED illuminates and, after a few moments, you should see a small bright spot, or trace, moving fairly slowly across the screen. 4. Find the Y-POS 1 control: The Y-POS I allows you to move the spot up and down the screen. For the present, adjust the trace so that runs horizontally across the centre of the screen. S. NOW investigate the INTENSITY and FOCUS controls: When these are correctly set, the spot Will be reasonably bright but not glaring, and as sharply focused as possible. The TRY control is screwdriver adjusted. It is only needed if the spot moves at an angle rather than horizontally across the screen with no signal connected. ) 6. The TIME/DIVE control determines the horizontal scale of the graph which appears on the oscilloscope screen. With ICC squares across the screen and the spot moving at 0. 2 s,’Del, how long does it take for the spot to cross the screen? The answer is 0. 2 x 10 2 s. Count seconds. Does the spot take 2 seconds to cross the screen?

Now rotate the TIME/DIVE control clockwise: With the spot moving at 0. 1 s/Del, it will take 1 second to cross the screen. Continue to rotate TIME/DIVE clockwise, With each new setting, the spot moves faster. At around 10 ms/Del, the spot is no longer separately visible. Instead, there is a bright line across the screen, This happens because the screen remains right for a short time after the spot has passed, an effect which is known as the persistence of the screens It is useful to think of the spot as still there, just moving too fast to be seen.

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