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Acidic urine occurs when the pH scale is low, possibly caused y taking too many acidic drugs, like aspirin, or it can be basic, meaning the pH scale is high which could be due to an illness including heavy vomiting or diarrhea, causing the body to not have enough acids in the urine. These factors are all very different, but are interconnected because an imbalance in any of these factors can lead to imbalances in other areas as well (Wise, 2010). The importance of this lab is to analyze factors that may affect urine concentration, pH, and rate of production (flow rate) though multiple scenarios over a period of 60 minutes.

My hypothesis for the urine analysis experiment is that the urine illume will increase because of the increase of fluids to the body for groups 1 and 3, in comparison with the control group (group 4), and decrease in the group not group 2 based on the excess absorption of fluid caused by the increase of sodium. I also hypothesize that the rate of production will be greater than the control group (group 4) in the groups 1 and 3 and remain unchanged for group 2. The pH scale will remain constant for groups 1, 2 and be more acidic for group 3 due to the additional citric acid contained in soda when compared with the control group.

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Methods In this experiment, the BIO LOLL classes were broken in 4 groups; group 1: drank water; group 2: consumed pretzels; group 3: drank varying types of soda pop; group 4: the control group, not consuming anything. The procedure involved collecting urine from each member of the groups 3 times in a 60 minute time frame (O, 30, 60 minutes). Prior to any consumption of product the first specimen was collected, in a graduated specimen cup, and the samples were analyzed using the Chemistry Procedure to test for pH, total dissolved solids (ADS), volume and flow rate providing data for ten separate variables: Specific gravity, pH,

Leukocytes, Nitrites, Protein, Glucose, Stones, Rebilling, Blurring and Blood levels 2010). After the first test was complete, providing a baseline value for each individual, the groups were instructed to consume their respective product; mm] of water group 1, mall of various sodas group 2, 10 pretzels group 3 and nothing for the control group 4. The remaining sample collections taken at 30 and then 60 minutes following consumption were tested for pH, flow rate, volume of urine and total dissolved solids (using a conductivity meter probe generating a value for ADS).

Time The consumption of any product caused the rate of urine production to stay even throughout the experiment in all 3 groups. Figure 4: Class Averages of Urine Volume vs… Time Discussion Kidneys are used to regulate the balance of salt and water through the filtration, absorption and release of urine. There are many factors that can affect this process, and change the amount of urine, the production of urine, the pH, and the total dissolved solids, not just the increased intake of water, sodium or citric acid (the main ingredients in the experiments products that affect urine).

The hypothesis was that urine volume would have an increase in groups 1 and 3, with a decrease in group 2. The hypothesis, in regards to groups 1 and 3, is disproved given that the urine volume for all groups decreased in the first 30 minutes and then increased by the end of the 60 minutes but not as great as he control group; in regards to group 2 the hypothesis is both right and wrong, the volume decreased in the first 30 minutes but then increased by the end of the experiment time period.

Majority of students from group 1 and 3 had an increase in urine production between the 30 and 60 minute time frames. This is due to the response of the body to an increase of liquid in the kidneys. A study from Miller, McIntosh, and Van Slake involved regularly obtaining urine samples for urinalysis and they state that “The variations in urine volume were obtained by controlling the water intake. When minimal urine volumes were desired no lids were given from the previous evening till noon or later. High volumes were obtained by giving water freely hour by hour”.

This study shows that the greater the water intake, the body will increase urine production as well. The second part of the hypothesis was disproved by all groups, in that they had very little change in production of urine during the experiment when compared to the change in production for the control group, possibly due to a higher absorption rate by the body for the products consumed. The third part of the hypothesis was disproved as well, since none of the groups had a change in pH as large as he control group.

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