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  Jerusalem:Interms of religion, the vast majority of Israelis are Jewish whereasPalestinians are mostly Muslims.

However, Jerusalem is considered sacred landto both Jews and Muslims. Not to mention that both want Jerusalem to be theirfuture capital. This implies that Jerusalem is a important factor of theIsrael- Palestine peace process.    In terms of notable positions, the EU (European Union) has said thatJerusalem’s status is that of corpus separatum. U.

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S. President Donald Trump hasrecognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital since 6 December 2017 and hasannounced his intention to construct a U.S.

embassy there, reversing an abidingU.S. policy.

   Currently, Palestine occupieseast Jerusalem and the United Nations envisions Jerusalem to become the capitalof two states as a two-state solution.   Security: Eversince Israel’s establishment in 1948, there have been multiple armed conflictsthroughout the region, creating an atrocious cycle of insecurity and fightingfrom both sides. As of today, parts of Palestine areoccupied by the Israeli military to secure territory obtained during the Arab-Israeli wars as well as maintaining order at borders. Israeli settlements:  Israeli settlements are Israeli civilian communitiesthat have been predominantly built on Palestinian territory. These settlementshave been considered illegal by the United Nations and have been repeatedlycriticized my several nations. Border disputes: In1948, United Nations Resolution 181 had called for a two-state solution;however, despite the encouragement of the international community, bordersremain controversial due to numerous wars and Israel gaining leverage overPalestine.

  Hamas: Foundin 1987, the militant group “Hamas” is a Palestinian Islamist politicalorganization and is currently in control of Gaza. Attempts of unity betweenHamas and the Palestinian Liberation Organization have failed several timesbefore a preliminary agreement in 2017. Therehave been groups in Palestine that have fired rockets into Israel. Theseactions have been regarded as acts of terrorism in the region. One of theleading groups, Hamas, has been regarded as a terrorist organization by multiplecountries and international organizations, most notably by Israel, U.

S., andthe EU; on the other hand, Qatar and Turkey are considered firm allies of Hamasby Middle East experts.   Palestinian freedom of movement:     The Israeli has restricted the movement of Palestiniansin territories occupied by Israel. In terms of restoring freedom of movement toPalestinians, general exit orders have been issued in 1972, but were revoked in1991 after the first Intifada. Israel states that the restrictions are in placein order to protect Israeli citizens.

  Palestinian right of return:     Proponentsof the right of return consider this right as a “sacred” right, as well as ahuman right, protected under international. Opponents, on the other hand, holdthat it is an impractical demand and points that there is no basis for it ininternational law. Following the 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1984 Palestine war,and the 1967 war, civilians of Palestine have been forced to leave theirproperties and therefore have been insisting on the right of return.  Peaceprocess   Throughout the ongoing conflict between Israeland Palestine, numerous peace talks and discussions have taken place, known asthe Israel-Palestinian Peace Process. Following the 2003 road map for peace,the United Nations envisions a “two-state” solution for peace between Israeland Palestine.

 

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