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terms of religion, the vast majority of Israelis are Jewish whereas
Palestinians are mostly Muslims. However, Jerusalem is considered sacred land
to both Jews and Muslims. Not to mention that both want Jerusalem to be their
future capital. This implies that Jerusalem is a important factor of the
Israel- Palestine peace process.

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In terms of notable positions, the EU (European Union) has said that
Jerusalem’s status is that of corpus separatum. U.S. President Donald Trump has
recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital since 6 December 2017 and has
announced his intention to construct a U.S. embassy there, reversing an abiding
U.S. policy.

 Currently, Palestine occupies
east Jerusalem and the United Nations envisions Jerusalem to become the capital
of two states as a two-state solution.


since Israel’s establishment in 1948, there have been multiple armed conflicts
throughout the region, creating an atrocious cycle of insecurity and fighting
from both sides.

As of today, parts of Palestine are
occupied by the Israeli military to secure territory obtained during the Arab-
Israeli wars as well as maintaining order at borders.

Israeli settlements:

Israeli settlements are Israeli civilian communities
that have been predominantly built on Palestinian territory. These settlements
have been considered illegal by the United Nations and have been repeatedly
criticized my several nations.

Border disputes:

1948, United Nations Resolution 181 had called for a two-state solution;
however, despite the encouragement of the international community, borders
remain controversial due to numerous wars and Israel gaining leverage over


in 1987, the militant group “Hamas” is a Palestinian Islamist political
organization and is currently in control of Gaza. Attempts of unity between
Hamas and the Palestinian Liberation Organization have failed several times
before a preliminary agreement in 2017.

have been groups in Palestine that have fired rockets into Israel. These
actions have been regarded as acts of terrorism in the region. One of the
leading groups, Hamas, has been regarded as a terrorist organization by multiple
countries and international organizations, most notably by Israel, U.S., and
the EU; on the other hand, Qatar and Turkey are considered firm allies of Hamas
by Middle East experts.

  Palestinian freedom of movement:

    The Israeli has restricted the movement of Palestinians
in territories occupied by Israel. In terms of restoring freedom of movement to
Palestinians, general exit orders have been issued in 1972, but were revoked in
1991 after the first Intifada. Israel states that the restrictions are in place
in order to protect Israeli citizens.

  Palestinian right of return:

of the right of return consider this right as a “sacred” right, as well as a
human right, protected under international. Opponents, on the other hand, hold
that it is an impractical demand and points that there is no basis for it in
international law. Following the 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1984 Palestine war,
and the 1967 war, civilians of Palestine have been forced to leave their
properties and therefore have been insisting on the right of return.



  Throughout the ongoing conflict between Israel
and Palestine, numerous peace talks and discussions have taken place, known as
the Israel-Palestinian Peace Process. Following the 2003 road map for peace,
the United Nations envisions a “two-state” solution for peace between Israel
and Palestine. 

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