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                                    Jacob Kotula                                     Block 4                    The Big Bang Theory     All theory’s change over time with research. A theory is a well tested  hypothesis that hasn’t been proven wrong, generally accepted to be correct unless proven wrong. Well the Big Bang is the most consistent and accurate theory of how we got here along with everything else we see. Remember a theory cannot be a law. The Big Bang was what happened before everything and before there was just nothing until the Big Bang that happened around 13.7 billion years ago. And the expansion of the universe. And the birth of light. The universe expanded from the size of a grape fruit. The Big Bang Theory is the leading explanation of how the whole universe began. And there was no explosion. We made Galaxies, stars. Our universe started very small, hot, and dense super force. ( Mix of the four cosmic forces.) With no atoms, stars structure or form called a singularity.     As this theory really cannot be proven it is still the most consistent theory then again the Big Bang Theory is the most consistent. As telescopes advanced scientists could see more clearly and deeper into the universe. Everything in the universe we see like humans, water, rocks, forests, was created in the first seconds in the Big Bang.     In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered galaxies aren’t static in 1 place and there are moving away from earth and this was the first actual evidence of the Big Bang. And Hubbles Law was created and his discovery is the starting point of the Big Bang. And he from seeing the motion of those galaxies was that the universe was expanding. And from the Hubble telescope which had  then allowed us to see deep into our universe.     Hydrogen was the first element and then after a few million years it clumped together and gravity put it under pressure and created stars and galaxies and light was created and the dark age was over. And in the first second of the Big Bang, the universe that in which is made up of crucial particles and electrons, quarks, and energy, neutrinos and photons and then the less familiar types. Which then those particles smash together which form neutrons and protons. And then again we come back to Hydrogen, after 3 seconds in the Big Bang Neutrons and protons had came together and then form the nuclei of the simple elements most people know which are hydrogen, lithium and helium. And after that in 300 thousand years later at that one moment in time the energy in the matter and energy in radiation is equal. But still our universe expansion continues to go on. And our waves of the light are stretched out to lower and lower the energy and meanwhile the matter travels onward and is largely not affected. And even more after that 300 million years have passed and then our gravity has strengthens slightly irregularities in our density of the primordial gas. And even as our very universe continues rapidly expanding, pockets of gas become even more dense and then stars begin to ignite within those pockets, and the groups of stars have become our earliest galaxies and this point is still about 12 to 15 billion years before present time. And lastly it has been 3.8 billion years BP so then our Earth has cooled down and our atmosphere develops and develops and then microscopic cells that are living including animals and plants start to evolve and flourish into planet Earths multiple volcanic environments on Earth at the time.    The Big Bang Theory says the temperatures in the early universe were that high that fusion reactions could happen. Which then resulted into the formation of our universes light elements like helium, deuterium and hydrogen were created so this is how they were formed. And the reasoning behind why heavy elements were not formed directly after the Big Bang is because there weren’t anti stable nuclei that had 5 or 8 nucleons.     And as Einstein has the equation of E=mc2 and it says that mass can be converted to energy and also the other way around. So Einstein didn’t know about the Big Bang well it wasn’t a thing yet. So mass can convert into energy and vice versa so then energy can be converted to mass. And if you extrapolate the rate of expansion and temperature of the universe back to much closer to the Big Bang that when the cosmic microwave background had been produced, and can find that in the first couple seconds of the Big Bang, and the energy of the photons was great enough to create particles. And anti-electrons that are called positrons and antiprotons. And the antimatter counterpart of an ordinary particle has the exact same mass and opposite charge of the ordinary particle but that is if it isn’t neutral. And when an ordinary particle and its antimatter counterpart will then collide and they destroy each other completely to make photons. And the process can be reversed if the photons contain enough energy. And in the first second of the Big Bang our universe was hot enough for the photon radiation to be able to go through this matter-antimatter particle transformation using gigantic particles like neutrons and protons. And when the temperature dropped to around 10 to the 13th K at 1 microsecond after the  Big Bang the process stopped for protons and it still continued for the less gigantic particles like the electrons.     The Big Bang Theory may not have been proven but what do you think happened, not trying to bring religion into this but do you really believe that god made our universe. And then again this is the most consistent theory of how our universe began.         Ok have you ever noticed a fire truck sirens as it goes past you and when it comes towards you it has a high pitch and when it is going away it would be a low pitched. This effect, where there is a change in the frequency and wavelength and this is called the Doppler effect. And it happens with any wave source that moves relative to an observer. This also can take into effect with light. Our sun contains helium and we know this because there are black lines in the spectrum of light from our sun where the helium absorbed the light and the lines form the absorption spectrum for the helium. And when we look at the spectrum of a distant star, the absorption is there, but the pattern of lines has moved towards the red end of the spectrum. This is called red shift. It is a change in the frequency of the position of the lines.      The most important reactions in the stellar nucleosynthesis are the hydrogen fusion, deuterium fusions and the proton proton chain along with the Helium’s fusion, which is the triple alpha process and also the fusion of heavier elements, lithium burning, a process found most commonly in brown dwarfs.     In conclusion, a theory cannot be a law, and a theory is a well tested hypothesis that hasn’t been proven to be wrong, generally accepted to be correct unless it is disproven. And the Big Bang Theory which happened 13.7 billion years ago which was the thought to be the event that created our universe. And with research and advances in technology like the Hubble telescope that allowed us to see deeper into the universe. And remember this is the most consistent theory of how the universe was created. The Big Bang Theory changed over time by technology advancing over time for example the Hubble telescope.                     Citations:   (“”)  (””) (“Http://”) (” www.                                                                                    

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