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INTRODUCTIONSafety includes all other attributes that influence a product’s value to the consumer including negative attributes such as spoilage, contamination with filth, discoloration, off-odors and positive attributes such as the origin, colour, flavour, texture and processing method of the food.Regulation & StandardsFood Safety and Standards Act, 2006(Act No. 34 of 2006).The Meat Food Products Order, 1973Principles for the establishment and application of microbiological criteria for foods (CAC/GL 21-1997)Principles and guidelines for the conduct of microbiological risk assessment (CAC/GL- 30(1999)ISO recently developed the ISO 22000 standard (“Food safety management systems – Requirements for any organization in the food chain”) specifically for food safety management systems. ISO / CD 13720-Enumeration of Pseudomonas spp.Microbiological Standards prescribed by  Government of India S.NO      CONTENT  STANDARD LEVEL1.Total plate count Not exceeding 107 microorganisms per gram2.Escherichia coli Not exceeding 100  per gram3.Salmonella Absent         Antimicrobial defense of productsEGGS :ü  Shellü  Shell membraneü  Albumen Shell        Conserves water ,       Mechanical protection               Act as Scaffolding for the embryo       Property of repel water       Provide a barrier to movement of bacteria into the eggShell membrane Made up of Anastomosing fibres having a keratin core and a glycoprotein mantle & they function as bacterial filtres.   Both the membranes offer greater resistence to penetration of microbes and the innermost offers the greater resistenceAlbumen   Mechanical defense-a)Viscocity of the proteins                                               b)Organisation in albuminous sac  Chemical defense – as a medium is unsuited to microbial growth.                 Alkaline reaction of albumen is not favourable for microbial growth                 ovotransferrin –  major defense against microbial infection & rotting .     S.NOCOMPONENTS of albumen                     FUNCTION1Lysozyme Lysis of cell walls of bacteria2OvotransferrinChelation of Iron , copper , zinc3AvidinCombination with biotin4OvoflavoproteinCombination with riboflavin5OvomucoidsInhibition of bovine trypsin6OvoinhibitorInhibition of bovine trypsin , alpha-trypsin , fungal proteinaseBIOLOGICAL PROPERTY OF EGGSMICROBIAL CONTAMINATION1) Before Laying :  Organism – Salmonella  spp                         Oviduct content & albumen secretion provide barrier against micro-organism                          Antiperistalsis – may carry foeward the micro-organisms from the cloacaCommon micro-organisms –                         1) Micro coccus                        2) Bacillus , Pseudomonas                        3) Achromobacter                        4) Srepto & Staphylococcus2) After Laying  : A few eggs will contain small no of microbes at oviposition (Source- vent , nesting material) .                                  Shell – 1,00,000microbes                                      Mostly Gram positive micro cocci  ROTTEN EGGS – It contains mixed infections of gram negative bacteria & in few case of gram positive                                      It cause TAINT in hens eggBacteria found in rotten eggs ;         Pseudomonas fluorescens       Pseudomonas putida       Pseudomonas maltophilia       Alcaligenes       Escherichia       AeromonasMOULDSWhiskers – Under humid conditions , the shell is infected with mycelium  Pin cushion – Hyphae penetrate the shell pore & then the infected albumen is in a gel state (Dark colour patches / ring)                           This condition formed in candled eggsChanges occur in egg infected with pure cultureS.NO  ORGANISM   TYPE OF ROT1Proteus spp Black rot – type 12Aeromonas liquefaciens Black rot – type 2 3Certain enterobacterersCustard rot4Serratia marcescensRed rot5Pseudomonas maltophiliaGreen rot6Pseudomonas fluorescensPink rot7Pseudomonas putidaFluorescent green rot 8Pseudomonas aeruginosaFluorescent blue rot  9Flavobacterium cytophagaYellow rotPOULTRY MEAT Over 25 genera  Pseudomonas  –    30.5 %    Actinobacter     –    22.7 %    Flavobacterium –  13.9 %   Corynebacterium – 12.7 % Essential feature  :   1) Sliminess  at outer surface of meat cuts.  2) Visceral taint  in New York dressed poultry(Enterococci)  3) Off odour – Due to Pseudomonas     Tetrazolium can be used by spray method to assess the microbial activity of poultry surfaces .      Developing of Red pigment due to high microbial activity .        As poultry undergoes spoilage , off-odours are generally noted before sliminess            Initial growth at surface            Reach the tissue under Skin            Enter into deep tissues            Bringing about incresed hydration of muscle proteins Initial population – 1500 per sq . Cm After processing   – 3500 per sq . Cm Spoilage of meat – 1    107  per sq.cmMANAGEMENT PRACTICESanitation – Extend shelf life than improper condition   by 3 to 7 daysWashing – 75 % removed by heavy spray of cold water & scrubbing with 2 rows of rubber fingeers Temperature  –  20 to 30   c (Spoilage)                              0   c (Longer shelf life) Vaccum packaging & CO2 atmosphere storageReference books  

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