globalization of the economy, and with the presence such organization such as
World trade organization (WTO) the world has become a global village with
people and companies merging, doing ventures and relocations across borders. In
addition, the appearance of web based business, has achieved significant
changes in the field of universal client relations and intercultural diversity
management. This has prompted an expanded increase by organizations that
overseeing social and cultural differences in the right manner can be a key
factor in the success of an organization across borders successfully. Many
companies have suffered in terms of not managing their respective project in a
different country and not handling their clients according to their diverse
cultural values or perceptions so now there is a developing interest for
organizations to comprehend and deal with the diverse cultures values,
perceptions and behavior of corporations, staff, and its clients.
describes communities in which there is a deep understanding and respect for
all cultures. Intercultural communication focuses on the mutual exchange of
ideas and cultural norms and the development of deep relationships. In an
intercultural society, no one is left unchanged because everyone learns from
one another and grows together. Intercultural management arises from this which
deals with the administration and encouraging correspondence, administration
and powerful association of staff and clients across borders worldwide.
concept which falls under the same umbrella is multiculturism which is derived
from the term Multicultural which refers to a society that contains several
cultural or ethnic groups. People live
alongside one another, but each cultural group does not necessarily have
engaging interactions with each other.
For example, in a multicultural neighborhood people may frequent ethnic
grocery stores and restaurants without really interacting with their neighbors
from other countries.
main problem that lies between intercultural and multicultural is whether if
different racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinct cultures. Other
opinions suggest that it is better if groups change so that they blend into the
larger society as in the idea of a melting pot.
Nonetheless studying these concepts deeply have helped organizations to make
strategies and plans for the success of their companies that thrive in a
multicultural environment with diverse managements across the world.
main focus of this paper would be on multiculturism particularly with the focus
on management styles and social relationships with a comparison done between
Germany, India and Brazil.
human groups possess culture, which consists of the language, beliefs, values,
norms, behaviors and even material objects that are passed from one generation
to the next. Although the particulars of culture may differ from one group to
another, culture itself is universal—all societies develop shared, learned ways
of perceiving and participating in the world around them.
can be subdivided into material culture and nonmaterial culture. Material
culture consists of the tools and technology required to use them that members
of society create and utilize. This includes art, buildings, weapons, jewelry,
and all other man-made objects. Nonmaterial culture includes a group’s ways of
thinking (beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and patterns
of behavior (language, gestures, and other forms of social interaction)-Essentials
since the world became a global village and employees going from one country to
another and with the inflow of tourists to every other country, it has become
vital for the people to know different cultures in order to be respectful to their
culture and survive in an organization that possesses a culture of its own.
with the above mentioned functions, it is important to know how does culture
vary across countries in terms of organizations and in terms of social
relations across cultures.
Fons Trompenaars and Charles
Hampden-Turner- seven dimensions of culture:
The Seven Dimensions of Culture were identified by
management consultants Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner, and the
model was published in their 1997 book, “Riding the Waves of Culture.”
This model came into existence after Trompenaars and
Hampden-Turner did research for almost ten years and in that span of time the questionnaire
was made and sent to around 46,000 managers around the world which included
almost 46 countries. The main focus of the questionnaire was to do research on preferences
The findings that followed through this research were that
cultures vary and differ in very specific way and anticipated manner and the
reason behind would be the unique preferences, values and way of thinking keeping
in mind a number of aspects.
After considerations of those factors and conditions, the
model of seven dimensions came into existence:
Sequential time versus
versus outer direction.
model can be used to understand people from different cultural backgrounds better,
so that prevent misunderstandings can be avoided and a better working
relationship can be possible. This is especially useful if one does business
with people from around the world, or if one manages a diverse group of people which
is the scenario nowadays with foreigners working in organizations all around
Richard Gesteland’s -four dimensions of
(1999) prepared a guide on how to understand other cultures and minimize
conflicts between parties. Gesteland (1999) developed four dimensions to characterize
the culture of each country:
Formal vs. Informal
(Monochronic) vs. Fluid-Time (Polychronic)
Expressive vs. Reserved
on his studies of different countries and business cultures the model he prepared is as
follows and can be an insight into knowing the working environment better and
help foreigners to adapt as how things work in specific countries in an