Introduction:With increase number of road accidents, safety andsecurity have become major concern mainly for car companies. Most of theaccidents are result of driver carelessness so car companies came up withAdvanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) to avoid accidents. ADAS system giveassistance to the driver and enhances driving experience by ensuring safety ofthe vehicle, the driver, and the pedestrians or bikers 1. In case of accident/dangeroussituation, the system either alerts the driver or takes the control to avoidthe accident 2. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are in demand dueto the desire of building safe vehicles and decreasing the number of roadaccidents.
These kind of systems areincreasing day by day and getting more developed to ensure safety, security andcomfort to the drivers. It contains various adaptive features like anti-lockbrakes system, electronic stability program (ESP), airbag control, electricwindows, parking assistant, adaptive cruise control (ACC), lane departurewarning and many more 3. ADAS consists of various sensors: radar, LIDAR,ultrasonic, photonic mixer device (PMD), cameras, and night vision deviceswhich allows to check their surrounding areas like lane, neighbor cars andvarious other factors like traffic, weather, light intensity, humidity etc.Huge data from these sensors should be verified and validated because ADASdepends on these data which analyzed and sent to ECU for processing the taskrelated these 4. Lane detection is one of the important system in AdvancedDriving Assistance Systems (ADAS) which is used for road navigation and alertsthe driver or take the control in case of vehicle being moved out of its laneor road 3.
In most of the case there are almost no time to react for the driveron the alert which can be fatal due to change in lane and involving in accidents.And this can avoided by using Lane keeping system that maintains the vehicle onlane except if turning indicator is on. When road have clear marking, lanedetection are be easy but it becomes complex when roads are affected by manysituations like rain, snow, fog, no marking, low light etc. There are manyalgorithms used for lane detection for ADAS.
Categorizationof Algorithms:Thereare many methods which have been considered and used for detecting and trackingthe lane: “… vision systems for detection of the painted lane markings, continuousmagnetic wires integrated into the center of lane mark, measurement of distanceto sidewalls using radar or ultrasonic waves, detection of reflective markersby laser technologies and etc.” 4:21.Manyof the above methods needs proper road infrastructure to be developed apartfrom vision systems that are complex but have ability for autonomous 4. Thereare many lane detection algorithm developed based on vision till date dependson road models (like 2D, 3D, straight or curve) and use different techniques (neuralnetworks, template matching, Hough Transform, machine learning, etc.) 45.
“Mostof the vision based systems capture the frame from camera, separate the imagesinto necessary amount of region of interests, use lane detection process anddefine the lane markings”4. Researches have presented different algorithms forthe vision/image based lane detection problems like feature driven approach andmodel driven approach 67.