Introduction”Metabolism is the overall process through which living system acquire and utilize the free energy they need to carry out their various function. Basically, metabolism is divided into two types i.e.
Catabolism (energyayielding) and anabolism (energyarequiring). (1) The word “stress” was firstly used in biomedical literature as a description of hyperactivity in the hormone system. After 20 years later’ it is considered a disease causing factor. But we know that redox process play a major role in many of stress situations. (1) In 1936, Selye gave the origin of basic principle of stress and stress responses whereas; in 1985 the concept of oxidative stress response is formulated in book “Oxidative Stress”. (2) Oxidative stress is a term that refers to the adverseaoutcomeafrom theaimbalance between the “body antioxidants defence system and the rampaging effects of reactive species”. Anaimbalance between oxidantsaandaantioxidantsa ina favour of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage, is termed ‘Oxidative Stress’ .
These difference occur when concentration of toxic reactive species (ROS) increase which include hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide etc which effect the integrated antioxidant defence mechanism which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant that are effective in blocking the dangerous effect of ROS.(3) Molecular Oxygen had long been recognized as terminal electron acceptor in electron transport chain of aerobic organisms during the manufacture of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a term referred to as oxidative phosphorylation. Without oxygen, the smooth functioning of the human body system will be practically not viable. The importance of oxygen to aerobic organisms are start to be overshadowed by the threat of its co-relatives, the ROS. These ROS are highly reactive molecules that can harm or modify cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins . The mix feeling is that aerobic organisms are in constant production of these highly ROS which is an essential feature of normal cellular function like mitochondrial respiratory chain, phagocytosis, arachidonic acid metabolism, ovulation, and fertilization .
Their production however, multiplies several folds during pathological conditions .(3) Metabolic syndrome “Metabolic syndrome may be a term that describes a cluster of independent risk factors that increase the chance of disorder”. This syndrome affects the maximum amount as half-hour of the U.
S population with increasing prevalence though a agreement criterion has not been reached for diagnosis metabolic syndrome, it’s suggested that screening should think about central obesity, hormone resistance, dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL)), and high pressure . Different factors adore unhealthy and prothrombotic states have additionally been related to metabolic syndrome .(15) Increased cardiovascular risk within the metabolic syndrome is that the results of a complex interaction of the individual risk factors that’s not totally understood.
for example, though central obesity may be a process characteristic of the metabolic syndrome, a study of middle aged men with metabolic syndrome found that cardiovascular risk is additionally accumulated independently of body mass index with the metabolic syndrome . Also, an association of increased risk of ischemic heart disease also as ischemic stroke in metabolic syndrome was discovered during a study of less weighty metabolic syndrome patients . Another study found that metabolic syndrome patients who also exhibit endothelial disfunction are at a larger risk for disorder than either group alone . Thus, metabolic syndrome will increase the probability of disorder to an extent larger than the probability given by any of its individual components.(15) Causes of some metabolic diseases:?Metabolic disorders:Diseases related to metabolic disorders are described below: 1-DIABETES MELLITUS: Like Osteoporosis, Cushing’s syndrome diabetes is one of the major metabolic disorder which occur due to increased level of glucose in blood.
.In this disease insulin that is secreted from beta cells of pancreas don’t function properly .As a result of which level of glucose in blood rises.
If increase level of glucose is not treated over long period of time then it may cause many other complicated diseases like heart attack, heart stroke, blindness and may be kidney diseases. Basically Diabetes is long term chronic disorder and it is classified into two types.(4)1- Type -1 diabetes mellitus( Insulin Dependent)2- Type-2 diabetes mellitus( Non-insulin dependent) (4) Type –I Diabetes Mellitus (Insulin dependent): In type 1 diabetes mellitus, beta cells of pancreas stop producing insulin due to auto immune destruction.
As a result of which blood sugar level increases. These types of patients require insulin on daily basis that’s why type 1 is termed as insulin dependent. Basically in this type, genetic makeup, autoimmunity and environmental factors are responsible for destruction of islet cells.(4)Type-II Diabetes Mellitus ( Non- insulin dependent): In type II Diabetes Mellitus, the body produce very little amount of insulin that is not enough for the body. It is usually the most common type of diabetes. In this type ,patients do not require to take insulin on daily basis but if it is not treated properly it may also lead to other disorders. “In this type of diabetes, multiple genetic defects, and certain environmental factors especially obesity are responsible for beta cell defects and peripheral tissue insulin resistance respectively.
(4) (4)2- OBESITY: Obesity is also associated with metabolic syndrome. It is due to accumulation of fat in body. It is a first step to ill health, and has become one of the leading causes of disability and death. Obesity may also leads to many harmful disease like cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, cancer respiratory disorders etc. Preventing obesity is the best long-term population approach. A complete obesity management can only be accomplished by a multidisciplinary obesity management team.
It is the responsibility of physicians to recognize obesity as a disease and help obese patients with suitable prevention and treatment.(5) In clinical practice, usually the fatness of body is calculated by BMI. BMI is calculated as measured body weight (kg) divided by measured height squared (m2). Patients with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater are classified as being overweight.
(5)BMI categories include: (5)3- ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE (AD): In 2008, Alzheimer is the 8th leading cause of death. Alzheimer disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in the gradual loss of a person’s memory and ability to learn, reason, make judgments, communicate, and carry out daily activities are greatly affected .(6)In this disease brain regions that are associated with higher mental factors i.e. neocortex and hippo campus are severly affected. The exact cause of this disease is still unknown and there is no cure available related to AD (7). However, some drugs are available, which slows down the progression of this disease.
Basically, AD is the leading causes of dementia .Other leading types of dementia include vascular dementia which results from reduced blood flow to the brain. (6) Several test have been performed to diagnose AD such as brain scans and neuropsychological tests. About 5% cases are predicted by genetic test. Diagnosis at early stages of the disease is important for several reasons: existing treatments may be more helpful at earlier stages of disease, and early identification allows patients and their families to address many of the official and financial issues that will likely happen.(6) (6)Although patients with AD have inflammation in the brain, the use of no steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, as well as steroids such as Prednisone, have not slowed the course of the disease.
However, enhanced prevention of Alzheimer’s disease advances is therapy, and proper care modalities .(6)4- HYPERTENSION: Hypertension is mostly linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease as well as renal diseases such as heart attacks and kidney failure. Death risk of cardiovascular disease amplifies across the range of BP, attempt to decrease BP to normal range are well necessary still among pre-hypersensitive individual. Hypertension may be caused due to genetic as well as environmental factors. Diet is the most important environmental factor influencing BP, with reduce salt intake, increased potassium intake, and the most important is to reduce alcohol intake having the largest impact on health.
Basically the ideal range of blood pressure is about 80/120 mm Hg. (8)5-DYSLIPIDEMIA: Dyslipidemia is the metabolic disorder which occurs due to three major components i.e. increase level of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRLs), reduce level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased level of high- density lipoprotein (HDL). The metabolism is high interrelated with the lipo-protein; it is believable that a common essential metabolic defect explicates all of the lipoprotein changes in the dyslipidemia related to insulin resistance. It is definitely rare that they are found separately in insulin resistant individuals.
(8) 6-AGEING: Ageing is a physiological process which has been associated with a growing risk of origin and development of several diseases including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. Aging is linked with the growth of inactive or less active, more heat-labile forms of abundant enzymes. Cases of increased ROS in aged people have been reported. This ultimately oxidizes essential biomolecules leading to deterioration or degeneration as the case possibly.(3)7- HYPOGLYCEMIA: InsulinAandahypoglycemicadrugs manageaglycemic “load and can lead to frequent hypoglycemia-related cardiovascular death in diabetes patients. Hypoglycemia also cause electrical activity in the heart as a result of which it become one of the main cause of death.
Irritation in hypoglycemic condition happens because of C-receptive protein (CRP), IL-6, vascular endothelial development factor (VEGF), expanded platelet and neutrophil activation .(9)8-METABOLIC SYNDROME AND BREAST CANCER: Diabetes and the risk of causing breast cancer noted more common between type 2 diabetes and incident of breast cancer. A meta analysis of all the studies indicate that women with records of diabetes have an about 16% greater chance of growing breast cancer than do nondiabetic women ,and this risk used to be most pronounced amongst postmenopausal women and those with kind 2 diabetes. There had also been a large number of data showing that a number of components of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are related with expanded risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, which include fasting insulin level ,abdominal obesity as well as lipid profile. The biochemical mechanism include extraglandular estrogen production, reduce intercourse hormone- binding globulin with consequent elevation of the bioactive plasma free estradiol, and increased insulin biosynthesis, all of which exert mitogenic results on both untransformed and neoplastic breast epithelial cells. Current proof helps the thought that a healthful lifestyle, including preserving a healthful physique weight, regular physical activity, and a wholesome diet, can counter the growing epidemic of obesity,type 2 diabetes, and per chance breast cancer.
Future studies are warranted to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the associations amongst type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and breast most cancers and to boost effectiveAinvolvement programs to prevent diabetesAandAbreastAcancerAby promot-ing a healthful lifestyle. (10)9- EPILEPSY: Epilepsy is the disorder of central nervous system(CNS) which occur due to abnormal electrical activity in brain, causing seizures and by the neurobiological,cognitive,psychological as well as social effect of this condition.It is basically the clinical sign of abnormal and extreme discharge of set of neurons in brain. The definition require the occurrence of aleast one epileptic seizure. Therefore,a seizure is consider as event where as epilepsy is a disorder. By definition; if only 1 seizure occur than it is not consider as epilepsy patient, until or unless the electrical activity occur in brain. Symptoms that may occur throughout a seizure can affect your muscles, sensations, behaviour, emotions, consciousness.
Basically,the type of seizure depends upon many factor in which one important factor is where in the brain the abnormal electrical discharge occur.(11) There are various causes of epilepsy such as head trauma,tumours,medication reactions,genetic influence etc.hece ,epilepsy can be treated with the help of medicines as a result of which some people show little or no improvement.
However,in severe cases surgery can control the seizure for majority of people. “The value varies, depending on the type of surgery, with success rates varying between 50% and 80%. It is a very new and rising area in the field of a treatment option and needs wider approach for more development.
(11)10-CLASSICAL GALACTOCEMIA: Classical galactocemia is a autosomal recessive inborn error which occur due to lack of enzyme galactose-1-phosphateuridyltransferase. It is very rare condition that usually occur in the first week of life once milk feed commence. The affected children may have following problems; such as cataracts, furminant liver failure, prolonged jaundice etc. Most of the babies will recover while few babies will not recover as a result of which death occur.There are complications of galactocemia for long period of time; even with treatment including female infertility as well as learning disabilities. It has been postulated that galactocemia could be detected on new born baby show and thisawouldapreventathea immediate severe liveradysfunction and sepsis.
(12)DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA: After the research of last 10 year, the criteria for identification as well as classification has developed. According to International Diabetic Federation(IDF) the criteria developed in low HDL-C is about _ 130mmHg and for diastolic is >_ 85mmHg etc. These criteria have collected on the basis of relative importance of each group assign to certain metabolic risk factors.(13)