INTRODUCTIONTERM NATIONALISM AND NATIONEXTREME FORM OF GERMAN NATIONALISMDURING WW2During 1930 Germany faced worlddepression and huge unemployment and poverty. German nationalism began to expandand develop even before world war2.
In 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor ofGermany. Since then he grasped everyopportunity to gain his power. Hitler used his intimidation tricks, lies andpropaganda to manipulate Germany’s government and ordinary people into Naziregime.
At the time of ruin, depression and poverty he offered people jobopportunities, therefore people began believe in his aim of improving economicsituation and his ideology of “greater Germany”. People began to idealizeHitler, even though his only aim and intention was to start a war. ARYANS VS FOREIGN – NAZI RACEIDEOLOGYDavid Crew described this period as”politics of the full-wage pockets and Nazi economic miracle” (Crew, 1994, p. 4). Stephan Evera argues: “if economic conditionsdeteriorate, publics become more receptive to scapegoat myths, hence such mythsare more widely believed, hence war is more likely”.
From my perspective, Everasupports Crew’s idea of politics strong wages and the fact Jewish was taken asan inferior minority. In “The Nazis told people to blame the Jews because manyJewish citizens were still wealthy while everyone else was monetarilysuffering, using economic inequalities to agitate relations between groups” (Ghostlaw, 2008). In fact, German people were looking forsomeone to blame “many of individual people were blinded by Nationalism regime”(Ghostlaw, 2008).
They believedHitler does everything for them, despite of it was not true, Hitler was onlyusing his intimidation methods which played a key role in Hitler’s rise topower. In August 1934 President Hindenburg died and Hitler called himself ‘Fuhrer’and combined the post of president and Chancellor. “Hatred of the Jews wasperhaps the most sincere emotion of which he was capable” (Mandell, 1972).”Sunny side”, Crew’s expression fornew mass consumerism determined as material benefits of industrial society, inorder to integrate German workers into Nazi system. “German workers would havepaid vacations, go on holidays or on ocean cruises sponsored by the Nazi “Strengththrough joy” organization” (Crew, 1994, p. 8).
He also states that foreign workerswere “racially inferior” and economy gave “Aryan’s” (German workers) a positionof privilege, because of this some German workers displayed sympathy for theirposition and for suffering of foreign workers. “There rarely appeared any smallact of kindness, such as illegally passing a foreign worker piece of bread. OtherGerman workers flagrantly mistreated foreign workers” (Crew, 1994, p. 10). As an example wecan take Jewish nationality, Hitler used his power to make people believe Jewishare cause of an economic depression. In 1938 were Jewish right taken away by “Thenight of broken glass” and Hitler revealed his war plans. In my opinion, Germanpeople were bullying the Jews because Nazi never revealed the truth aboutconcentrate camps, till 1938.
Therefore, German people lived in imagination of “GreaterGermany” because they did not fully see Hitler’s intentions. People thought heis helping to raise germens power. Gellner wrote: “Cultural boundaries aresometimes sharp and sometimes fuzzy, the patterns are sometimes bold and simpleand sometimes tortuous and complex” (Gellner, 2006, p. 53), his citation suggestsgroups are based on a mixture of loyalty and identification and of extraneousincentives, positive or negative, on hopes and fears. Conflicts and disagreements between Germensand Jewish definitively increased the chance of war, it can lead to a victim mentality,and both sides feeling aggrieved and wronged by the other (Bingham, 2012). In the other hand, this can be disputedby academics such as Gagnon who argue “it is wrong to assume a mixing ofnationalities increased the likelihood of conflict” (Bingham, 2012). In addition, Benedict Anderson states in canbe caused by falsity of nationality and cultural labels, in his book he arguesmultiple communities may affect chance of war.
(Anderson, 2006). “Nationalist sentiments may be instilled in apopulation through nationalist symbols, propaganda, emphasis on nationalhistory, language and other methods” (Bingham, 2012). Simultaneously, the newfoundnationalism was based on the fact Jewish citizens are enemies and they arethreating this national security. As can be seen in Jewish example, ethnic orracial stereotyping can be used to gain nationalism sense in the face ofperceived internal threat (Bingham, 2012). Germans were atfirst warned and then expressly forbidden to seen with Jews in public, therewere laws against intermarriage and campaign to expropriate non Aryan property.
To quote from Stephen Evera “Nazi German nationalism was an extreme case ofminority oppressing nationalism”. Evera also claims German’s kind ofnationalism is the rarest and can be the most dangerous kind of nationalism, hedescribed it as “Asymmetrical nationalism-only our nationality deservesstatehood, others should be denied. The nationality is using violence toachieve goals” (Evera, 1994, p. 13). From my perspective, we can not say ifnationalism causes war, but it definitively has a potential being the cause especiallyin case of German nationalism during WW2. THE NAZI OLYMPICS 19361st August 1936 OlympicGames began in Berlin. Olympic Games were used for propaganda by Nazi, theNazis encouraged new view of Germany while concealing the focusing of Jews andRoma (museum, 2018).
“We need waste nowords here, Jews are Jews and there is no place for them in German sports, andGermans have the right to do what they want in their country” (Mandell, 1972, p. 59).Mandell also suggests it is ironical to ban Jews from games, because at firstgames in Athens, two of the winning German gymnasts were Jews. WAR PERIOD AND HOLOCAUSTIn 1938 and 1939 Hitler takenAustria and Czechoslovakia, his power was growing. Later in 1939 Hitler invadedPoland and the country was divided between Soviet Union and Germany. This is howWW2 began.