Introduction: Cortisol,a glucocorticoid and a stress hormone (1),an important Biomarker, has diverse effects on inflammation and protein synthesis.
As Cortisol is under the influence of Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, it is secreted in response to stress whether-physical, chemical or psychological. Variousresearches indicate that Salivary Cortisol is nearly as accurate as Serum Cortisol (2), and even preferred over Serum Cortisol in cases of Child(3) and Maternal care(4), adrenal disease(5,6), neurological disease. The method of collection of Salivary Cortisol is a simpler,non-invasive approach, causing minimal-to no- discomfort to the patient (7). It reduces the risk of false values related to needle-stress (7).
For thispurpose, Salivary Cortisol is routinely used inwestern clinical setups (6, 8). It is also used as a Biomarker in Stress Research(9, 10). Altered diurnal variation in Cortisol secretion isindicated in various disease states (11). However, IntheIndian Clinical scenario Serum Cortisol is being used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes,there are fewer studies done on salivary cortisol. We aim to comparatively evaluate and correlate the salivary and Serum Cortisol levelsin order to establish preference of Salivary Cortisol over Serum Cortisol and to use Salivary Cortisol as a substitute to Serum Cortisol Assay in Indian Population. Objectives of the Study: 1 Toestimate the levels of Salivary and Serum Cortisol in Healthy Adults.2.
To correlate the morning Salivary and Serum Cortisollevels.3. To study the meandifference between morning and evening Salivary Cortisol levels.
Material and Methods: Research Approach: Cross sectional study.This study will be conducted among apparently normal Individuals. Study Design: Study Technique:· 2mL un-stimulated whole saliva sample will be collected 5min after rinsing mouth repeatedly with distilled water, centrifuged at 3000rpm for 15 min, supernatant will be used for Salivary Cortisol Assay (12).· 2mL venous blood will be drawn ina vaccutainer, centrifuged at 3000rpm for 15 min; supernatant will be used for Serum cortisol Assay.
· Serumand salivary samplesare collected between 7-10am. And again between 4-8pm,only salivawill be collected. Study participants:To study the correlation between saliva and serum,n=25 will be chosen, for the power of 0.
9, number of predictor -1, with alphasignificance of 0.05 and effect size f2-0.35. To study the mean difference between the morningand evening Salivary Cortisol groups- n=25 will be chosen for the power of 0.8,0.
05 alpha significance, large effect size-0.35. From 25 participants morningand evening saliva samples and morning serum sample will be collected. Study Tool: Cortisol will be estimated by ECLIA method in both saliva and serum samples. Inclusion Criteria: · Age group: 18-40years.· Sex: Both males and females.· Healthy individuals with Sound Sleep before collecting samples.
Exclusion Criteria: · Age: < 18 years and > 40years.· Pregnancy· Chronic illness: liver disease, acute or chronic renal failure,hypertension, diabetes,infectiousdisease, Haematopoeitic disease.· Autoimmune Disorders: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sjögren’s Syndrome, SLE.· Pre-operativeHead and Neck Surgery, Periodontitis.· Acute illness · Neuropsychological disorders: Stress, Depression.· Chronic smokers,alcoholics, tobacco chewers.
· Malnutrition Statistical Analysis: Pearson’sCorrelation Testwill be done to study the correlation between saliva and serum cortisol levels.To determine the significance of mean difference between the morning andevening saliva levels groups, Mann- Whitney U test will be used. Implications of the Study: For estimating night Serum Cortisol level inpaediatric age group or even in adults, the stress caused by needle stick prickand waking the patient in the night will falsely elevate the cortisol levels causingloss of diurnal variation and will affect the report interpretation. For improved patient care and better prognosis, this study is directed toward the measurement of Salivary Cortisol, whichis a simple and non-invasive method,and is especially required in pediatric age group, where collectingSerum is cumbersome and painful.Our study reinforces the useof Serum Cortisol Assay as better, simple and non-invasive method. Reference: (1) Lee DY, Kim E, Choi MH.
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