Introduction Starting the 21st century, society encountered the most threatening worldwide act of terrorism. The act of terrorism strenuously becoming more complex and cynical. Hence, it is essential to have measures to combat terrorism by recognising and examine the factors that contribute to this hazardous phenomenon. It is also fundamental to establish an accepted definition of ‘terrorism’ – which we failed to do so – to effectively combat terrorism. Nonetheless “terrorism is particularly a challenging idea, and the terms ordinary use frequently shows confusion and displays double standards particularly the definition tends to be utilized in a string of different perception. What is “terrorism”? Initially, the word “terrorism” derives from “terror” which meant a system, or regime, of terror that introduced by the Jacobins during French Revolution. Today, terrorism is coercion with a reason: the terror is intended to influence others to do things they would otherwise not do and cause intense fear when successful. If somebody did terror act to others with no further purpose, only for the pleasure desire, it would not consider as a condition of terrorism.
(Primoratz, 2012)Next, terrorism act always links with political agenda. In 2006, Goodin emphasizes its political role in terrorism. Goodin explains terrorism is “fundamentally a political tactic, involving the deliberate frightening of people for political advantage. (Goodin, 2006) Definition of a terrorist act change to as “a political act, ordinarily committed by an organized group, which involves the intentional killing or other severe harming of non-combatants or the threat of the same or intentional severe damage to the property of non-combatants or the threat of the same” (Cody, 2004)Why there is no consensus in the international sphere on the definition of terrorism? However, in the discussion of what really defines terrorism, there’s still a public debate since “one person’s terrorist is another’s freedom fighter”. The quote shows a double standard of the form “state vs. nonstate actors” – terrorism is an act done by rebel and not ever by the state.
For instance, the use of terrorism in the Israeli– Palestinian conflict. Both Palestinians and Israelis are carrying out what public would call terrorism. Nevertheless, both sides deny the accusation and blame the other side for doing so. Both try to defend the violence they engage as defend mechanism by the terrorist acts of the other side. (Primoratz, 2012)Resolution by the United Nations to build up a definition that could be acknowledged collectively and open the best approach to managing terrorism by international law seems to have perished, in any event up until now. The main issue is that Western governments needed to ensure that state agents would never be considered as a terrorist, while Islamic nations needed to ensure that national freedom movements in the Middle East (including Kashmir) would never be treated as a terrorist as well. After all, there is no reason at all why two states at war cannot both be utilizing terrorism, regardless of whether as far as justice of going to war or justice in fighting or both.
(Primoratz, 2012)How terrorism group operate; Terrorist organizational models: ideological affiliation Terrorist groups that are related to a political movement or association will regularly require a more various levelled structure, keeping in mind the end goal to arrange consider deliberate terrorist violence with political action. A change in network structure is a helpful strategy which depends more on an ideological intent. Hence, a terrorist group operating as per a particular political agenda and inspired by ideology for ethnic or national freedom influence the conventional valuation of terrorism. Groups connected with ethnic or nationalist agenda are constraining their operation to one nation or restricted district have a tendency to require fewer capacities. For example, al-Qaida and associated cells with regional, international, or transnational reach to local hate groups and self-radicalized, unaffiliated terrorists with single-issue plans and restricted capabilities. (U.S.
Department of the Army, 2007)Individuals may portray a doctrine and secure an extreme perspective of how to advance the ideology with personal action. Cells may assemble from the motivation of al-Qaida or comparable ideological declarations. Other independent actors may act as individuals or small terror cells to exhibit a specific issue, for example, domestic terrorism in Environmental Liberation Front (ELF) movements. These semi-independent or independent cells plan and act inside their own intends to endorse a common ideological position with terrorist organizations that may have regional, international, or transnational reach. (U.S. Department of the Army, 2007) Tactics of terrorism As essential as the actual attacks are the tactic used in the target population of the fear of such attacks so that the threat of violence becomes as effective as actual violence. Progressions in technology, modernization, and globalization have numerous states flourish through the span of history and inconveniently they have likewise opened terrorist groups to new tactics and weaponry.
Terrorist tactics tend to support attacks that maintain a strategic distance from compelling countermeasures and exploit vulnerabilities.Prior to the establishment of explosive and automatic weapons, killings directed by terrorists must be done on a one-on-one premise. The installation of new weapons and technology has empowered terrorists to kill more productively and in more prominent numbers. “The weapons of choice for earlier terrorists were the dagger, the noose, the sword, and the poison elixir.
The introduction of the hand-thrown bomb and the pistol, and more recently the machine gun and plastic explosives enabled terrorists to kill much more efficiently. Now weapons of mass, or ‘wholesale,’ destruction allow terrorists to ‘leverage’ their personnel, as proved by the events of September 11, 2001, in which a relatively small number of highly trained individuals armed with primitive box cutters and prepared to give up their own lives were able to use passenger jets as weapons of mass murder.” (Dershowitz, 2003) In that capacity, terrorist groups can possibly use various sorts of terrorism tactics relying upon the conditions and the apparent probability of achievement.Bombings and suicide bombing; As mention earlier, the outcome of globalization, enable easy access for the terrorist to accumulate chemicals used to make improvised explosive devices (IED’s). The explosive device or bomb may be embedded in vehicles or public building and places or even tied to the bodies of individuals for the suicide attack.
In various cases, suicide bombings have victimized civilians, military personnel, political personnel, or some mix of this victim. While suicide bomber sacrifices himself to kills others. Executioner utilizes suicide bombing as a prominent and practical strategy in the expectation of creating cultural, economic, social, or political change (Berman & Laitin, 2006; Pape, 2003) These techniques utilized for demonstrative purposes or to targeted assassinations.
For instance; Lebanon’s corporation with suicide bombing started in 1983 when Hizballah, a fundamentalist Shi’a organization, executed the initial such assault in the Middle East. Hizballah attackers drove and detonated explosive-laden trucks into barracks of U.S. Marines and French paratroopers who were sent to fortify the Gemayel regime that was built up with the assistance of Israel.
The Syrian Nationalist Party, socialist groups, a communist group, and Hizballah did such attacks, especially against Israeli troops inhabiting region of southern Lebanon (Lester, et al., 2004) Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi, the previous Jordanian-born leader of al-Qaida in Iraq, take accountability regarding the 2005 suicide bombings in Jordan that targeted civilians. The bombings occurred close to international hotels in Amman and took 60 lives and harms 115 others.
A progression of suicide bombings also targeted American diplomatic offices in Casablanca, however, were no casualties besides the bombers; Islamist extremists who want to topple the monarchy were blamed for the attacks. (Shafiq & Sinno, 2010) While in Indonesia, suicide bombings took after the East Asian emergency and the oust of President Suharto’s tyrant government in (Chen, 2007)Conventional firearms Despite the well-known representation of terrorism as bombing alone, and countless of fatality and excessive media affect related to bombings, conventional firearms are to such an extent if not more common in their utilization. For instance, in the 2011 Norway assaults 68 individuals were executed by a man with two firearms (Mala & Goodman, 2011). The 2008 Mumbai terrorist attack were done halfway by firearms and mostly by bombs. (Sengupta, 2008) Also, one Transportation Security Administration officer was killed and few others harmed by a man with an assault rifle in the 2013 Los Angeles International Airport shooting.
(Rubin, 2013) Henry Wilkinson, director of intelligence analysis for the Risk Advisory Group, revealed to Washington Post associate that there’s another reason, as well: it’s genuinely simple to get firearms in the United States, so firearms are often terrorists’ weapon preference. (Erikson , 2017)Moreover, terrorist organizations will likewise profit by self-manufacturing of firearms as a way to avoid black market weapons restriction – particularly in states with powerful anti-arms smuggling government – (UNODC, 2006) For instance, it can be found in the preliminary cutting-edge U.S.
conventional military systems effort by means such as Remote Combine arms which making interlocking remote-controlled fields of flame with remote-detonated IEDs for both offensive terrorist targeting purposes and defensive channeling and urban kill zone usage by insurgent forces alongside Virtual Targeting Presence- being able to threaten potential target in a territory for long duration by methods of remote sensing over watch. These customs made, printed, and remote-controlled trends are additionally bringing in firearm and technology combination for both weapon assembling and usage needs. (Bunker, 2015)Vehicle-based attacks Transforming a car into a weapon isn’t new — car bombs have been a famous weapon a recently. Contrasted with suicide-bomb attacks, utilizing vehicles as weapons is simple to plan and do without recognition. The strategy does not require procuring explosives.
The weapon, a standard road legitimate vehicle, is promptly accessible in the victim nation and can be utilized without raising doubt. In 2017, the US Transportation Security Administration (TSA) issued a statement on vehicle-ramming attacks, cautioning that “no community, large or small, rural or urban, is safe to attacks of this kind by organized or ‘lone wolf’ terrorists.” The agency forewarned that these kinds of attacks are simple to plan, however can incite mass casualties. (Erikson , 2017)Besides, terrorist group profiting by the ascent of social media networking stages by encouraging the public to support their goal. For instance, the late spokesperson Abu Muhammad al-Adnani called on ISIS supporters worldwide in September 2014 to “single out the disbelieving American, Frenchman, or any of their allies”, “slaughter him with a knife, or run him over with your car.” This is the reason US government has cautioned of the “weaponization of everyday life”- as exemplified by the utilization cars, trucks and knives for terrorist purposes – as a hazardous evolving movement. Since one need not be a prepared contender to execute such low-tech assaults – only obsessive ISIS creed would do.
For example; Mohamed Lahouaiej- Bouhel, a Tunisian who was resident in France, drove a 19-tonne cargo truck into crowds celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, killing 86 people and maiming 484 others, before being shot dead in an exchange of gunfire with police. As in the latest London incident, ISIS claimed responsibility for the Nice attack, saying that Lahouaiej-Bouhlel had answered its “calls to target citizens of coalition nations that fight the Islamic State”. (Ramakrishna, 2017) Cyberterrorism Development of Information and communication technology (ICT), enable the capacity of terrorist organizations or individual to perform cyberterrorism and nations liabilities to these occurrences. Cyberterrorism can turn into an undeniably alluring tactic for terrorist groups and individual assumed that they can perform the attacks far away from the origin target location and are hard to discover origin of the criminal.
Terrorist like ISIS and Al-Qaida utilize ICT specifically social media as a platform for recruiting a new member and public relations. They usually would not attack fully integrated utilities. A terrorist would prefer hijacking commuters in planes, trains and subways, or hack into on large audiences at profoundly attended entertainment venues to interrupt public daily routine to strengthen and multiply the impact of a physical terror attack. In the end, the terrorist main goal is to implant terror and includes public casualty. So, hacking into T&D system (electricity transmission and distribution system used to provide power and energy within or to the service area) kind of inadequate choices.
(Bush, 2016)Among the tactic available, terrorist prefer explosives as the main weapon because it creates more damage and strikes fear into society physically. Yet, cyberterrorism still a potential threat and government should not take it for granted.