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Introduction to
Process Technology (TIPT)

January 1

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shell and tube heat exchanger and the function of it. Why shell and tube
heat exchanger is the most common in oil refineries and other large
chemical processes.

TIPT – Assessment


Student Name: Ahmed Said Mohammed Al’ Farsi
ID Number: 01931-12
Class: PE1C
Module: Introduction to Process Technology (TIPT)




The industrial processes conduct
different types of equipment. The collection of equipment called as systems
that control the process. However, the shell and tube is the most common
equipment that used in industries. The heat exchanger is one of the most important
equipment that the main function of it is to exchange the fluid temperature
inside the process. As well there are different types of heat exchangers.

The different types
of (Heat Exchanger):

Plate heat exchangers.

Plate and shell heat exchanger.

Adiabatic wheel heat exchanger.

Plate fin heat exchanger.

Pillow plate heat exchanger.

Fluid heat exchangers.

Waste heat recovery units.


process flow diagram:













Exploring the Controls System on DOW Heat Exchangers

The working principal of equipment:

v  Shell
and Tube heat exchanger: Its device that used to cooling down and
heating up the fluid in any process. This heat exchanger has two main bodies
first body called shell which is the out cover (shell) and the second body is
the (tubes) which is inside the heat exchanger. The fluid divide into two ways
of flow one goes through the tubes, and another fluid go over the tubes which
mean (through the shell) to exchange heat between the two fluids.

v  Water
are containers that hold liquids for example, (Water).

v  Valves:
are the most
common equipment in every process because the valves are the responsible of
controlling the fluid flow rate and the heat inside the process also its
control the pressure inside the process.

v  Pump:
equipment that
used to move the fluid from place to another.

v  Control
System: to
control the variables inside the process such as the (pressure , temperature
and the flow rate)

The shell and tube heat exchanger content the:




Tube sheets



shell and tube heat exchanger is known as (stationary) equipment.

Problem that happened in process: 

one day inside the process industries, a shell and tube heat exchanger was
being used to increase the temperature of reactor products. One day, suddenly,
the heat exchanger stopped working. The operators tried to discover the problem
that had led to damage of the equipment.

Application and uses of a heat exchanger:

v  Heat
exchangers used to prevent overheating in car engine and increase efficiency of
the engine itself.

v  Heat
exchangers used in Furnaces and AC.

v  Heat
exchanger used in industries for heat transfer inside the process.

As there are different types of heat exchanger application.



Expectation and Propose Solution to fix the

exchanger has power to work among long time for some reasons one of this
reasons is because heat exchanger hasn’t have any rotary parts. However, there
are three types of heat exchanger mistakes (damage problems) that can occur,
and it can be prevented by somehow:


Chemically induced corrosion

Combination of mechanical and chemically
induced corrosion.

exchanger could be damage due to bad maintaining also.

– Mechanical: These disappointments
can take seven different forms: iron corrosion, vapor or liquid mallet, pulsation,
thermal weakness, freeze-up, thermal expansion. And loss of cooling water.

-Chemically Induced Corrosion:
These disasters result from the chemical compound interface between the
materials of the heat exchanger and the fluids spread through it. There are
seven categories of chemically induced erosion failures but I will mention only
three of them which are: general corrosion, stress corrosion and galvanic

-Combination Mechanical Fiasco
and Chemically Induced Corrosion: Most of the damages that heat exchanger
received it’s from the combination of two conditions. For example, an opposing
attack, and split corrosion attack could occur concurrently at
one or more than positions. Rather often, a mechanical problematic
joining with an erosion problem creates a quicker damage than either one
of them alone. There
two communal kinds of combination motorized and corrosion failures;
erosion-corrosion and corrosion-fatigue.


& Founding:













(Solution to fix
this problem):

-Maintaining the
equipment continuously over years.

-Clean up the equipment if it’s
possible after each 6 month.

-Buy the most common brand and
more efficiency.

-Don’t use it in open areas under
sunlight and hot areas.



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