Hospital (Aravind) was founded by Dr. Govindappa Venkataswamy (Popularly known
as Dr. V) in 1976 and he was very passionate about curing blindness in India.
He realised there was a problem with the health care service in India. An
efficient health care service requires consistent attention and most developing
nations aren’t able to keep up with costs and demands of the rapidly rising
population (Britnell, 2016). Therefore, it was imperative to come up with a
different health care system which supported the government’s efforts and is
also a self-supporting system.
In this essay, I
will be analysing how the values of McDonaldization had an impact on Aravind
Eye Hospital. Firstly, I will discuss the issue of unnecessary blindness in
India. Then I will go through the concept of McDonaldization and its impact on
Aravind Eye Hospitals which had helped boost efficiency. Then I will carry out
a critical review about the McDonalization of Aravind Eye Hospital. Finally, I
will conclude by assessing the global impact, advantages and influence of this
health care system.
Aravind Eye Hospital
Over half of
India’s blindness is unnecessary and can be easily healed (Aravind Eye Care
System, 2015) and it was Dr. Venkataswamy’s aim to end all unneeded blindness.
To accomplish this objective, he founded the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, Tamil Nadu in 1976 and has
developed into a vast network of eye hospitals. At first, the hospital started
with only a small amount of 20 beds. With increased notoriety from the public
over the years, Aravind Eye Hospital was able to expand their base within
several other hospitals in Southern India (Karmali, 2010). Now there are around
2000 surgeries that are being performed every year and with the quick rising
number of patients, the doctors and surgeons have worked together to create
remarkable workmanship to coordinate and work through the immense facilities .
Over 1.4 million patients are being treated every year and incredibly over 60%
of these patients are being treated for free. However, the hospital is still
profitable as the patients who pay not only cover the normal expense per
operation but they also cover other costs such as maintenance and buying new
The main reason
for building up on Aravind Eye Care Hospital was initially to differ the ideas
and methods which are being used by fast growing restaurants such as the global
giant McDonalds and this concept is known as McDonaldization (Business model
toolbox, 2015). In order for the Aravind Eye Hospital to grow rapidly, Dr.
Venkataswamy easily adapted to all features and values of McDonaldization in
his field and was able to build up on a large scale of success.
is a term that sociologist George Ritzer defines as being implemented when an
association embraces the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant and is a
concept of justification and scientific administration (Ritzer, 2010). Ritzer
has identified the 4 main principles of McDonaldization: Predictability,
Calculability, Efficiency and Control. I will now go through these principles
and assess how they apply to The Aravind Eye Hospital.
The first principle of
McDonaldization is predictability where clients can predict services in every
branch of an organisation as well as the building, decorations and uniforms.
People seem to favour predictability as they like to know what to expect in any
The principle of
predictability was utilized at the Aravind Eye Hospital because every client is
treated with the same items and services all through every single patient in
any branch. For example, a client will receive the same lenses in the Madurai
branch as they would in the branch in Theni. This implies that regardless of
the sex, age, race or social class each patient will be dealt with in the same
The second principle,
calculability, emphasises on quantity rather than quality. Everyone receives
the same service for the same price as anyone else. Speed of services is very
important, however, sometimes this comes at the cost of quality.
The guideline of
calculability was utilized as a part of request for more significance instead
of value, this incorporated the significance of patients from all around the
globe including India. Every patient at the hospital receives the same treatment
to cure unnecessary blindness, whether it is lenses or an operation. The
hospital mainly provides its services for free, for example, on the visit to
the hospital, the patient receives free food and drinks and a return journey.
principle is efficiency when the service to clients is ready from the get go,
for example, a big mac in McDonalds will be ready and warm before it is
ordered. Also, each employee has a specific role which boosts efficiency. For
example, if you go to the hospital, you will first see a nurse who will assess
your symptoms and treat minor conditions before you see a doctor. This allows
the doctor to treat patients more efficiently.
performs annual recruitments from nearby villages. Once hired, they are trained
in therapy, operation theatre duty and housekeeping. These young workers are
the main body of the hospital. The system of McDonaldization allows these staff
to easily conduct and finish a high amount of work as efficiently as was
possible. In India, there was a need for affordable contact lenses and The
Aravind Eye Hospital was the first hospital in India to notice this problem.
Lenses were being imported from the west and a standard pair of contact lenses
would normally cost between the range of $100 to $200. This is very expensive
for developing countries such as India and to combat this issue, Aravind Eye
Hospital developed their own way of creating lenses which were made to fit as
they would flex and the lenses were sold at a very low price of just $5 a
The fourth and
final principle of McDonaldization is control. This is when employees are given
specific direction on how to act with clients and potentially what to wear.
These include training programmes and technology.
The key standards
of calculability were non-application of non-human innovation (Ritzer, 2010);
this was utilized well at the hospital and it had helped the doctors and
surgeons to do operations more proficiently with the implication of machines
rather than human contact (Rangan, 2009). Additionally, this helped them to
finish more operations and perform a higher number of surgeries every year in
contrast with America, the amazing service given by Dr. V was genuinely a
devoted and effective surgeon. His 50 years of commitment has really helped him
become a standout amongst the best in this field, his work has brought about
one of the world’s leading eye hospital.
The hospital has
taken a big step to improve their services by providing: lens manufacturing,
education, R and other relative measures to reach their aim of improving
peoples’ eye sight and much more convenient access to treatment and
affordability. This lead to brand expansion of the hospital and the ability to
reach out to a larger audience.