Internationals face different challenges when arrivedto new countries to adjust the living and learning in their new environment.The adjustment problems vary from country to country of depending on their origin,ethnicity and race, proficiency in language, and climate conditions. And nomatter an international come from a collectivist or an individualist cultures(Constantine et al 2005; Surdam &Collins, 1984). The adjustment challenges to be faced by the internationals mayinclude 1) living accommodations, food and other daily life essential items,and getting authentic and perfect documentation works for their residencepurpose; 2) adaptation to the academic culture by learning how to interact withfaculty and other co-students, and different modes of teaching; and 3) showinginterest in making new friends and developing a new social network system tosupport each other.
All these challenges occur during their initial transitionand may even last longer. Moreover, some internationals may come across somehurdles like language proficiency, discrimination experiences, groupheterogeneity which are to be overcome. The psychological well-being of aninternationals may be impacted by the adjustments of these kind of experiences (Sam,2007).The primary goal of this section is to review the literature on history of Indians andIndian women in Taiwan and to emphasizethe theories that are relevant to Cultural Acculturation, Psychologicalwell-being, and stress. The first part of this study focuses on historyof Indians. The second part of this studyfocuses on Indian women.
Third part of this study focuses on Cultural Acculturation process and itsinfluence on Indian women in Taiwan. Fourth part of this study focuses onPsychological well-being. In last part, the content focuses on stress and itsmoderating effect with cultural acculturation and psychological well-being.
Itwill help to find the factor related to Indian women cultural experiences in Taiwan. Historyof Indian Immigration to TaiwanSince1980s Indians have been coming to Taiwan mainly for as businessmen, as jewelers,and as scientists. The Indian community called “Sindhi traders” is the first to arriveto Taiwan. This community includes about 200 families. But now, it has only 40to 50 families because of migration of the majority of them to China,mainly to Guangzhou. Another Indian group which is ofsimilar sized early is from the families of diamond and precious stones traderswho sell their wares to Taiwanese jewelers.With the help of a foreignpolicy called “Look East”, India hasprovided an access to build and cultivate extensive tie-ups with Taiwanrelating to trade and investments and in as developing cooperation in science& technology, the issues of environment and exchanging people policies.
These people- people exchanging policies provide an opened gate for an Indiansinto Taiwan, in the form of small groups of Indian nationals by grabbing theopportunities in several locations near the country’s larger universities, mostlyin Hsinchu and Taipei.Currently, at the Academia Sinica itself, thereare almost about 100 Indian scientists. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indians_in_Taiwan).
Leonard-Spark& Saran, (1980) stated that India is composed of unusual combination of individualisticand collectivistic traits which are due to the influence of British. Theindividualistic traits are said to be self-preserving as these Indianimmigrants were described as an achievement-oriented, materialistic, ambitious,and bringing up a strong emphasis on formal education and priority to an individualsuccess. Indian society is also said to be collectivistic which is evident fromthe Indian immigrants’ combinational nature to maintain traditional familyvalues with a patriarchal system, with the sustenance of the family extension, arrangedmarriages, obedience to elders, and traditional sex roles. Indian Women in Taiwan India beinga diversified country, the understanding of the acculturation experiences ofIndian women in Taiwan and exploration of the rich diversity of experienceswithin the population of Indian immigrants of Taiwan are essential. Theawareness on the religious diversity, family practices and values, and the numberof cultural differences that exist within the population of Indian immigrantsare also necessary (Seth,1995).
The role of Indian Women within families is deeplyrooted in the very fabric of Indian society and was a clear evident in its traditions,practices, and religious principles. Indian women’s role varies with the system ofcaste, socioeconomic status, education level and the generation gap. Forinstance, There will be an influence of members of a family of in thepreservation of the cultural traditions and also they will act as key personsin making decisions relating to major life choices such as marriage,friendships, and education (Saran, 1985). As the Indian women comes from a patriarchal and collectivisticsociety, they usually bears the sole responsibility to maintain the values, beliefs and cultural traditions byholding, teaching, and transmitting them to their family members (Bhattacharya,2002). The basis for an identity of an Indian woman lies behind the kinship andFamily which facilitate the continuity of culture and religion. Usually,Indian women not only expected to be loving mothers, obedient daughters-in-lawand importantly dutiful wives, but also expected to be responsible forhousehold duties, with or without the help of somebody.
But, now days, women are alsoreceiving a great encouragement by their families to pursue higher educationwhich leads to many changes in their role, like seeking employment as of theirdesire to have better living standards. Likewise, Indian women are having dualrole of house wife and being employed as well (Gupta, 1999). As the Indianwomen brings the values, beliefs, ideologies, etc. to the Indian society withthem, the female development within a Indian society depends on these serious issues like roles of caste and religion, place of originand family system. Evenwell-liberalized, well-educated, urbanized, and westernized women still slightlyexposed to these cultural aspects that should be reevaluated and renegotiated. ThusIndian women immigrants are said to be in transition are much more subject toforces of change than their counterparts in India (Naidoo, 2003).
To choose the effective ways toacculturate to the individualistic culture of the Taiwan, the modern women of Indianimmigrants find themselves a crucial junction and fallow various copingstrategies to adopt (Kankipati, 2012). This study explores these strategiesadopted by Indian women to acculturate to the society of Taiwan.