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Abstract Your abstract should be one paragraph and should not exceed 120 words. It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click Word Count. Influence of health care delivery services in the future The impacts of healthcare delivery systems biggest issues are the aging and obesity. We need to understand how these can impact our lives and what we can do to address them now before they become a bigger issue in the future.

Many of the Americans from the baby boomer era are becoming retired and will add to the future endeavors of the working class with many of our government programs being affected. The second contributor is obesity. Since this can go in hand with the aging these are the main reasons we need to look at our delivery systems. Aging With our population of baby boomers which are born between 1946 and 1964 they will start to turn 65. This means that our numbers of aging people is likely to double from what it is now. This also has an increase due to immigrants arriving from 2005 to 2050.

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In the United States our aging is graying at a much slower pace. By 2050 we are expected to have one fifth of our population retired. The increased number will have a huge impact on the United States structure of many programs. The rapid change can have major social and economic issues when we do not plan for them ahead of time. “The postwar baby boom in the United States has strained local hospital, public school, and postsecondary education systems, as well as the labor force as these unexpected large cohorts have moved through the life cycle. U. S. population aging has been long predicted.

”(Kevin Kinsella and Wan He, “An Aging World: 2008,” U. S. Census Bureau, International Population Reports P95/09-1 (Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 2009). But this is not the only numbers that are important for policies and programs. This also affects healthcare, disability, living arrangements, kinship networks and the economy. It is about the cost and implications the Aging population will have on America. Environment Environmental factors are air pollution, food and water containments, radiation and toxic chemicals as well as health determinants.

You also have factor such as socioeconomic status which means the more money and better you can live the less likely you are to be a burden on society. Behavior and lifestyle can also influence along with heredity. But the most important is health care because this is your determinate to living a long healthy life. Demographics Demographics of the aging population more than 3. 5 million boomers turn 55. By this year the 50 and older population will reach 100 million. It is an increase of 31 percent this decade. They are expected to live 19 years longer and women outnumber men by almost 6 million.

Half a million are grandparents with the responsibility of raising their grandchildren. The major income is social security, income from assets, private pensions, government pensions, private pensions and earnings. Most of the elderly live in metropolitan areas and they tend to move less. Most elderly are home owners and their homes do have physical problems. And most have a free and clear home where they do not owe anything on them. When it comes to work and education 6. 2 million Americans age 65 are in the work force.

Between 1970 and 2008, the percentage of older persons who had completed high school rose from 28% to 77. 4%. About 20. 5% in 2008 had a bachelor’s degree or higher. (http://assistedliving. about. com/od/startingabusiness/a/agingtrends. htm) Reducing The aging trend is likely to increase due to their needs being different than younger people. Older adults have different health care needs than younger age groups, and this will affect the demands placed on the health care system in the future. They are more likely to suffer chronic illness such as cancer and heart disease.

About 84% of those age 65 and older suffer from at least one chronic condition, compared to 38% of those ages 20 to 44 [Wu and Green, 2000]. They are more to require the service of healthcare due to injuries and illness. They have more limitations than younger people and they use more prescription medications. They usually consume more ambulatory care, hospital service, nursing homes and home health services than younger people. When dealing with the aging we can implement many options to help them live a full and healthy lifestyle.

We need to help them improve their health by getting regular exercise and not smoking, reduce the chronic disease. We also need increase the use of preventive services and help them understand that addressing the issue now will help them live a longer life. If they have a coginitive impairment, mental health issue get them address early. And provide them with education and planning for serious events. Obesity The CDC reports that obesity rates among adults in the United States doubled between 1980 and 2012.

Today, over 30% of our country’s population is obese with many not feeling this is a real issue. The increased healthcare cost created by this trend shows otherwise. When you think of health many studies show being obese increases your risk for serious health. Many serious health factors are heart disease, diabetes and many cancers. This makes the risk in healthcare cost and a decline in productivity in the economy. The current obesity rates in America are more than one third. There are no real differences between men or women. Adults aged 60 and over are more obese than younger adults.

With men it is no real difference in rates but with women the rate is 42 percent to 31 percent in women under 60. When you place children in the equation it is higher for adolescents than preschool aged children. The obesity rate is higher among boys than girls at an 18 percent to 15 percent rate. (http://www. cdc. gov/obesity/data/adult. html) Environmental factors The environmental factors that contribute to obesity are lack of healthy choices in diet and lack of exercise either from choice or lack of resources such as the store is too far to walk so they drive.

With fewer options for physical activity and healthy eating it becomes difficult to make good choices. Other environmental factors are energy balance with means spending too much time watching television, playing video games and these types of things than energy building activities such as bike riding or walking. Another factor is the food industry with reasonable food portions, change in what is in them and cheaper health options for the consumer that cannot afford. Demographics Overweight in adults and children has tripled and it is estimated that one in five people in the United States is overweight.

We are seeing many younger people becoming obese with the higher rates in the Hispanic, African Americans, Mexican Americans and Native Americans. The lower the families income the higher the risk for obesity rate due to lack of resources to pay for them. The higher the income the more readily the healthy food options are. Trend During the past 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in the United States and rates remain high. More than one-third of U. S. adults (35. 7%) and approximately 17% (or 12. 5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2—19 years are obese. (www. cdc. gov) In 2009-2010 the age-adjusted mean BMI was 28.

7 (95% CI, 28. 3-29. 1) for men and also 28. 7 (95% CI, 28. 4-29. 0) for women. Median BMI was 27. 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 24. 7-31. 7) for men and 27. 3 (IQR, 23. 3-32. 7) for women. The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 35. 5% (95% CI, 31. 9%-39. 2%) among adult men and 35. 8% (95% CI, 34. 0%-37. 7%) among adult women. Over the 12-year period from 1999 through 2010, obesity showed no significant increase among women overall (age- and race-adjusted annual change in odds ratio [AOR], 1. 01; 95% CI, 1. 00-1. 03; P = . 07), but increases were statistically significant for non-Hispanic black women (P = .

04) and Mexican American women (P = . 046). For men, there was a significant linear trend (AOR, 1. 04; 95% CI, 1. 02-1. 06; P ; . 001) over the 12-year period. For both men and women, the most recent 2 years (2009-2010) did not differ significantly (P = . 08 for men and P = . 24 for women) from the previous 6 years (2003-2008). Trends in BMI were similar to obesity trends. (NHANES) With the increase in BMI it can lead to many diseases which are heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome. Reducing the risks To reduce the risks of obesity you first need to be educated on the risks and how you became a risk factor.

Then you need to change your eating habits to a healthy diet. You will need to increase your regular exercise and decrease inactivity. Go to the doctors and figure out a healthy path to get in control. Citations 1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health (2000). The Practical Guide: Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults (NIH Publication No. 00-4084). Available online: http://www. nhlbi. nih. gov/guidelines/obesity/prctgd_c. pdf. 2. Purnell JQ (2008). Obesity. In DC Dale, DD Federman, eds. , ACP Medicine, section 3, chap. 10.

Hamilton, ON: BC Decker. 3. American Gastroenterological Association (2002, reapproved 2008). AGA technical review on obesity. Gastroenterology, 123(3): 882-932. [Erratum in Gastroenterology, 123(5): 1752. ] 4. Klien S, Romijin JA (2008). Obesity. In HM Kroneberg et al. , eds. , Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 11th ed, pp. 1563-1587. Philadelphia: Saunders. 5. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (ODPHP Publication No. U0036). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Available online: http://www. health. gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide. pdf.

Gingras Y, Lariviere V, Macaluso B, Robitaille J-P (2008) The Effects of Aging on Researchers’ Publication and Citation Patterns. PLoS ONE 3(12): e4048. doi:10. 1371/journal. pone. 0004048 References Anderson, Charles & Johnson (2003). The impressive psychology paper. Chicago: Lucerne Publishing. Smith, M. (2001). Writing a successful paper. The Trey Research Monthly, 53, 149-150. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors and are formatted with a hanging indent. Most reference entries have three components: Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials.

Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use “et al. ” for remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference. Year of Publication: In parenthesis following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n. d. ” in parenthesis following the authors. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book).

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