In general, K+12 education is an educational
system practiced in practically the whole world. However, the Philippines was
the only country in Asia that did not offer 12 years of basic education.
Nonetheless, there was a clear need for reform for countries which already use
the K+12 education. Hence, the country is now pressed with the need to
restructure and modify the basic education program of the Philippines to join
the bandwagon of change.
EVALUATION IN EDUCATION
Origins in the US.
When academics and policy-makers were still beginning to “explore” evaluations
of General Education courses in the US in the mid-fifties, the said evaluations
were met with resistance. Dresser and Mayhew (1954) stressed out that “The
vocal antagonism of such a group opposed to evaluation, especially since it
has the support of a long tradition of independence on the part of individual
college teachers in their classroom procedures, is a major difficulty to
overcome in the beginning of any basic evaluation or self-study venture.”
authors were then clarifying the importance of evaluation to education,
especially to General Education. According to them, the setting of objectives
has been important to the development of General Education in the US. While the
act of setting objectives has promoted commonality in General Education, there
have been “reasonably distinctive emphases” which emerged, namely: (1) Content
orientation, (2) Intellectual orientation, and (3) Student orientation. There
is therefore a need, the authors say, to undertake evaluation “to determine
whether one approach is better than another” (Dresser and Mayhew, 1954).
concluding their study, they even highlighted that “General education
objectives frequently do not play a significant role in planning a course, with
the result that much of teaching is highly traditional” and that “The
multiplicity of general education objectives frequently results in association
of one or two objectives with a specific course; thus, independent courses are
encouraged and broader general education thinking and planning are discouraged”
(Dresser and Mayhew, 1954).
the mid-seventies, Bikas C. Sanyal (1975) named the following countries as
which undertook the evaluation of higher education: the US, Australia, Austria,
Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the
United Kingdom. He also named Spain, Colombia, Nigeria, Malaysia and Jordan.
This shows the wide acceptance of the importance of undertaking evaluation
research into tertiary education. He named the following objectives of
evaluation: “(1) To improve upon excellence but for internal use, (2) To face
competition and attract clientele, (3) To delineate a relevant profile for
institutions to achieve better results, and (4) To provide the basis for
granting funds – government or otherwise” (Sanyal, 1975).
also indicated the development of evaluation research on education in
presenting the following “important dichotomies” in approaches to evaluation:
(1) Scientific experimental vs. qualitative or non-controlled, (2) Formative
vs. summative, (3) Evaluation of the product vs. evaluation of the process, and
(4) Instrumental evaluation vs. interactive evaluation.
present, there is an abundance of materials supporting for the positive
benefits of undertaking evaluation of tertiary education and presenting ways of